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의사소통 능력향상을 위한 화행(話行)중심의 고등학교 중국어교육
- 의사소통 능력향상을 위한 화행(話行)중심의 고등학교 중국어교육
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- 교육대학원 중국어교육전공
- 이화여자대학교 교육대학원
- The purpose of this study is, based on the view from Speech-Act Theory that is well adapted to the practical communication situations, to find the most effective way to greatly improve communicative competence in High School Chinese Education. Thus, more concrete subjects than existing educational method focused on grammar and structure, are considered to develop strong capacity to execute proper Speech-Act in the right situation. The discussed agenda are as follows.
Chapter II mainly examined what Speech-Act Theory is.
Against the legacy studies of Structuralism or Transformational-Generative Theory that narrowed its subject down to the language itself considering it an abstract symbol, Speech-Act Theory regards language as a symbolic system for the dynamic communication activity and emphasizes that language studies should be comprehensively conducted with relation to real life.
The core standpoint of Speech-Act Theory is that non-language factors such as utterance situation or intention should be fully considered in language education as it takes speech and action for a basic unit of communication. Therefore, including social, psychological, and situational causes, more various fields should be thoroughly covered in Chinese education by adopting speech-act viewpoint that has coherence in real life. With this effort, the ability to create appropriate utterance that is suitable for each situation, that is, Speech-Act Competence will be improved.
In Chapter III, all dialogue parts of 5 current high school Chinese textbooks are analyzed based on a view of Speech-Act Theory. Through this analysis, it is understood that how many of 42 standard Speech-Act topics that are essential to practical communication situation, are presented in 5 textbooks. Also aspects of postulating the situations that is inseparable relation with Speech-Act are examined.
The results of the analysis are as follows.
1) Chinese I and II in total, it is founded that among standards of 42 speech-action topics, 30.6 topics (73%) are presented in 5 textbooks. In detail, the number of Speech-Act topics per each textbook is average of 28 for Chinese I (67%) and 17.8 for Chinese II (42%) only.
2) In terms of concrete expression of each Speech-Act topics, it is hard to find well-organized speech-action series or variety of expressions depending on the situations. Most of representations are basic simple expressions focused on limited situation. Even some sentences are awkward in meaning as they are artificially put together for the use of grammar exercise.
3) As for mutual relationships among conversation partners, 64% of total dialogues are about personal relations, 35% for interpersonal, and 1% for undisclosed relations. It shows that dialogues of current Chinese textbooks are exceedingly having a bent for personal relations. Besides, although it may vary depending on the textbooks, interpersonal relationship in dialogues is generally short of variety.
4) Regarding the location where the conversation takes place, all 18 patterns are presented in overall 5 textbooks. The frequency of home is 15%, 12% for school and 36% for public places. And over 37% are undisclosed places.
As a result of this analysis, it can be concluded that present high school Chinese textbooks do not provide satisfactory functions in terms of reflection of standard Speech-Act topics, diversity of expression in speech and actions, and variety and appropriateness of situations. Hence, in order to resolve these problems and to provide effective dialogues for the growth of communicative competence, followings are suggested.
First, to compose dialogues focused on standards of Speech-Act topics by drawing up Speech-Action list that is consist of indispensable agenda for Chinese communication.
Second, to provide with various live expressions that can be used in real situation, not stereotyped expressions.
Third, free from the simple binominal structure, more concrete conversation style to be developed.
Fourth, dialogue situation to be set up more clearly and appropriately
Fifth, to consider variety of relations between communicators, and diversity of dialogue places. Not to lean to any one part.
In Chapter IV, ideal Speech-Act centered textbook dialogues are proposed based on above suggestion. Sentences of the dialogue are made up of pre-selected Speech-Act topics that are closely related to the theme of the lesson. Also, languages are expressed in more practical and realistic way compared to that of current textbooks.
Next, it is introduced Speech-Act focused Teaching-learning Model to practically improve communication competence. This model mainly applies to speech and action for showing the way , asking for a favor , and prohibitions . Special focuses are on followings.
The model is constructed in a way of intensively training the class with pre-selected speech-act topics. It leads students to actively participate in the class. Also, to reflect various communicating circumstances in real world, it makes an attempt to connect practical situation in Teaching-Learning progress. Expressions are composed in various way that is suitable for real situation. Stereotyped expressions are sublated. Besides, grammatical explanations are based on actual usage of the words.
Speech-Act focused Teaching-Learning Method is helpful for students who want to intensively train themselves to improve their speech-act capacity which allows to use appropriate words for various situation. Therefore, it is expected that new Teaching-Learning Method is to be more effective in developing communicative competence than the existing method of legacy Chinese lesson.
With these efforts of Speech-Act focused education, it is expected that communication competence, which is a high priority goal of Chinese language education can be increased to a tremendous effect.
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