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한, 중 한자어의 이질화 연구 : 意味와 形態를 中心으로
- 한, 중 한자어의 이질화 연구 : 意味와 形態를 中心으로
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- 교육대학원 중국어교육전공
- 이화여자대학교 교육대학원
- The aim of this study is to investigate the causes, process and result of dissimilation of Korean-Chinese words and Chinese words which used to be semantically and morphologically same when Korea borrowed Chinese words from China. Particularly the words used in this study are dissyllabic words shown in high school Chinese textbooks. A brief outline of this study is as follows.
In Chapter Ⅱ, the development of Korean-Chinese words and Chinese words is generally described. Also, the types of semantic and morphological dissimilation are discussed in Chapter Ⅲ.
Many Korean-Chinese words and Chinese words have different meaning now even though they are morphologically same. This semantic differences of both words are due to the different process of meaning change. That is to say, as Korea and China changed words original meaning to the different meanings, also, as one country changed the meaning while the other did not, the meaning of many words in Korea and China became totally different. Therefore, This study categorized the types of semantic dissimilation according to the country that changed the original meaning and subdivided it again according to the types of semantic change. Also, the different original meaning in Korea and China is explained, too.
Some words semantically different in Korea and China are closely related to neutral tone of Chinese. Generally, when the second syllable is read in original tone, the meaning in Korea and China is same. On the contrary, the meaning in Korea and China are different when it is read in neutral tone. This can be explained by the general relationship between the meaning change and the neutralization of second syllable in China. Also it is related to the tendency of Korea to preserve original meaning of foreign language.
The morphological dissimilation of Korean-Chinese words and Chinese words is discussed in Ⅲ-2. The types of morphological dissimilation can be categorized as "same-morpheme and opposite-order", "partially different morpheme" and "completely different morpheme".
During the examination upon the origin of the words which are morphologically different in Korea and China, it is found that the most significant cause of morphological dissimilation is the "linguistic influence of Japanese-Chinese words on Korean-Chinese words".
In ChapterⅣ, the causes of dissimilation of Korean-Chinese words and Chinese words are analyzed in many sides. The causes of semantic dissimilation are as follows.
1) Linguistic causes :
Korean-Chinese words and Chinese words are semantically dissimilated by "ellipsis of words", "different interpretation on a same word", "vagueness of words meaning", and "different usage of one same word".
2) Historical causes :
The different change of referent and the different attitude to the referent dissimilated the meaning of words.
3) Social causes :
The meaning change by the social stratification and the elevation of meaning and degeneration of meaning are referred in this part.
4) Psychological causes :
Since Korea and China have different historical, political, economical and linguistic background, it is obvious that the people in each country have different psychological associating function. And this different psychological associating function changed the meaning of words in different ways.
5) The need of new names :
As new things were invented and imported from foreign country, one country indicated the new things through changing the meaning of the words already existed. On the contrary, the other country indicated the new things through borrowing the names from foreign country or creating new names for itself. These two different process semantically dissimilated some words in Korea and China .
6) The influences of foreign language :
Many Japanese-Chinese words entered Korea since Kabokyngchang and those Japanese-Chinese words had changed the meaning of many Korean-Chinese words which used to be same with that of Chinese words.
7) The conservatism of language importing country :
Korea tended to keep the old meaning of words better than China because it was conservative to the language borrowed from foreign country. So there are many Korean-Chinese words still keeping the original meaning.
In ChapterⅣ-2, the causes of morphological dissimilation are analyzed and they are as follows.
1) There are many Korean-Chinese words not in use in China any more or just used as the written language. The reason is that China substituted new words for old words while Korea kept using the old words which had been imported from China long time ago.
2) While Japan colonized Korea, thousands of Korean-Chinese words which used to be morphologically same with Chinese words were substituted by Japanese-Chinese words. Through the process of substitution, many Korean-chinese words and Chinese words became morphologically different.
3) Korean people had used Chinese words for a long time so it was very natural that they had created their own Korean-Chinese words for their own use. This made Korean-Chinese words and Chinese words morphologically different.
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