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리스회계의 이론적 배경과 일반적인 회계절차에 관한 연구

리스회계의 이론적 배경과 일반적인 회계절차에 관한 연구
Other Titles
A Theoretical foundation and General Accounting Process for Leases
Issue Date
대학원 경영학과
이화여자대학교 대학원
The use of leases by means of financing the cost of assets used in business has increased substuntially in recent years. Such Leases have been used frequently in lieu of the other forms of Financing. The principal accounting matters relate to the accounting for leases by the lessees. A lease is defined as an agreement converying the rights to use the propertys plants or equipments (land and/or depreicable assets) usually for a stated period of time. Under the terms of a lease agreement, lessee acquires the right of the use of property during the terms of leaser the Lessee undertakes's significant obligation in agreement of making the specified Lease payment to the lessor over the rent period of the lease, under the current accrual accounting practice the negotiation of a Lease is not ordinarily recognized as an accounting transaction. ; However contract data of the leases mar be relevant the financial information for users of published financial reports and thus the recent literature contains the numerous proposals for capitalization of such a contract. In the light of these proposals it is especially appropriate to consider how currently the accepted concept of asset and liability accommodates leases. It has been concluded that the exchange of promises and rights by independent concerned parties upon entering into a contract constituted an accounting transaction. This expanded notion of an accounting transaction coupied with the service potential concept of assets, fielded a theoretical framework, which accommodated leases contracts. Using this framework, the leases contracts qualify theoretically as assets and liabilities which should be recorded in the accounts. It would be objective if the aggregate of the lease obligations and the property right related to them would constitute being material tales reference to the financial position of the lessee, they should be shown as assets and liabilities in the lessee's balance sheet. The capitalization proposal is based on four propositions ; 1. that the lease represents e asset to the lessee in the form of limited user rights. 2. that this asset has a cost measured by the liability assumed by the lessee. 3. that failure to capitalize the Lease may Lead to incorrect measures of annual income. 4. that footnote disclosure alone is inadequate disclosure. It is consentient to divide all leasing contracts into broad categories - financial and operating leases. (FASB; SFAS No.13 capital lease) The problem of evaluating financial leases lies in the determination of the "cost" of a lease as compared with debts. The method of evaluating leases uses a technique of cash-flow discount method, BIR method, IRR method. This technique discloses the cost of the lease, and thus provides the fundermentlement for one part of a lease-or-bay decision. The effects of various alternatives on the overall cash flow and earnings of the firm must also be considered, as well as the balance sheet effects. But the effective interest method seems to provide more convenient measures of the cost than the other methods proposed so further. From the standpoint of the lessee, all Leases may be classified for the accounting purposes as followers ; A. Operating leases B. Capital lease If at the date of the lease agreement (inception of the lease) the lessee is party to a non-cancelable lease that meets one or more of the following four criteria, the lessee should classify and account for the arrangement as capital lease. 1. The lease transfers ownership of the property to the lessee. 2. The lease contains a bargain purchase option. 3. The Lease term is equal to 75% or more of the estimated economic life of the leased property. 4. The present value of the minimum lease payments (excluding executory costs) is equal to or exceeds 90% of the fair value of the Leased property. Leases that meet none of the four criteria above are classified and accounted for by the lessee as operating leases. The acceptable accounting methods, available to the lessee as related for the type of Lease3 are formed as follows; Type of lease Lessee Accounting method operating lease operating(noncapitalization) method capital lease capital lease(capitalization) method Under the operating method, rent expense(and a compensating liability) daily accrues to the lessee as the property is used. Under the capital lease method, the lessee treats the lease transaction as if an asset was to be purchased on time, that is, like a financing transaction of which an asset is acquired and an obligation is created.;리스가 企業에서 使用하는 資産의 原價를 조달하는 資金調達手段으로 등장한 것은 극히 최근의 현상이며 오늘날 많은 企業이 設備資産取得의 한 資金調達手段으로 利用하고 있다. 리스회계의 중요한 회계상의 문제는 임차인 측면에서 리스회계의 문제이기 때문에 본 논문은 임차인 측면에서 리스회계무제를 다루고져 한다. 리스는 특정한 리스契約期間도안 所有權, 즉 工場 및 設備를 使用하는 權利를 移轉하는 契約이다. 이 契約下에서 임차인 리스계약기간동안 財産을 使用하는 權利를 取得하고 리스契約기간동안 임대인에게 특정리스支給額을 지급할 것에 동의한 債務를 負擔하게 된다. 이 리스契約은 현행 會計實務에서는 會計上의 去來로 認識되지 않으나 그러나, 리스계약자료는 財務諸表利用者에게는 目的適合한 財務的 情報이다. 따라서 最近의 문헌들은 그와같은 계약의 子本化에 대한 여러 제안을 제기한다. 특히 어떻게 현재의 자산과 부채槪念이 리스會計에 適用되는가를 연구한다. 계약을 체결하는 독립적인 당사자들의 權利의 교환은 회계적 거래를 구성한다고 結論을 내렸다. 會計上의 去來의 확장된 언급은 자산의 用役潛在力과 관련되고 리스계약과 일치되는 理論的 틀을 마련해 준다. 이 틀을 利用하여 리스계약은 客觀的으로 측정이 가능하다면 會計上 資産과 負債로서 인식되어야 할 것이다. 리스債務와 이에 관련되 재산권의 총액이 賃借人의 財務狀態에서 주요한 금액을 차지한다면 그들은 임차인의 賃借對照表에 財産과 負債로 記錄되어져야 할 것이다. 이 資本化의 논거는 다음과 같다. 1. 리스는 제한된 使用者 權利의 형태인 賃借人의 資産이고 2. 資産은 賃借人의 추정된 負債에 의해 측정가능한 原價를 갖는다. 3. 리스를 資本化하지 않으면, 年度別 利益의 부정확한 測定을 초래하게 된다. 4. 註釋公示는 적절한 公示가 아니다. 일반적으로 모든 리스契約을 資本리스와 運用리스로 크게 분류할 수 있다면, 자본리스의 評價問題는 기타 대안적 負債와 비교가능한 原價를 결정하는데 있다. 리스 評價方法은 현금흐름割引法·BIR法·IRR法을 사용한다. 이 기법들은 리스의 코스트를 公示하고, 리스 혹은 購入의 意思決定의 判斷基準을 제공한다. 이 중 IRR法이 그 어느 方法보다 더 편리한 측정방법이라고 할 수 있다. 賃借人의 관점에서 모든 리스는 運用리스와 資本리스로 分流한다. 이 分流基準은 ① 所有權의 移轉與否 ② 割引購入選擇權의 여부 ③ 75% 檢證 ④ 90% 檢證이 使用되고 있다. 이 조건중 하나 以上을 충족하는 리스契約은 資本리스로 分流되고 資本리스이외의 모든 리스계약은 運用리스이다. 資本리스의 資本化의 方法에 의해 運用리스는 非資本化方法에 의해 會計處理하게 된다.
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