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Efficiency Improvement of Organic Solar Cells Using Non-Chlorinated Solvent Systems

Efficiency Improvement of Organic Solar Cells Using Non-Chlorinated Solvent Systems
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교육대학원 화학교육전공
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
In this paper, we have investigated the photovoltaic property of the solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC61BM) layer, which were processed from the field of non-chlorinated solvents and additives. Chlorinated solvents have been commonly used in organic solar cells. They have high solubility for polymers and fullerenes and have exhibited high efficiencies, but they are toxic and harmful to the environment and human. Therefore, we have studied the solvent system which can overcome such issues of chlorinated solvent using non-chlorinated solvents and additives. The effects of additives, i.e. diphenyl ether (DPE) and dibenzyl ether (DBE), on the photovoltaic properties were studied. As a comparative example of non-chlorinated solvent system, a chlorinated solvent of chlorobenzene (CB) was used as well. Photovoltaic performance using only o-xylene (XY) was worse than that of CB based photovoltaic cells. The use of additives showed higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of CB solvent system. The morphology analysis using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 2-dimensional grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (2D GIXD) was performed to understand the cause of efficiency improvement. These analyses confirm that non-chlorinated solvents and additives formed large domain morphology favorable to photovoltaic cells. Through the measurement of charge mobility, it was also confirmed that the use of additive contributes to the improvement of electron mobility. These results suggest that non-chlorinated solvents which using additives have a potential to replace chlorinated solvents.;본 논문에서는 비 염소계 용매와 첨가제를 사용한 P3HT:PC61BM 벌크이종접합 구조의 태양전지를 연구하였다. 유기태양전지에 주로 사용되는 염소계 용매는 고분자와 풀러렌에 대한 높은 용해도를 가지고 있어 효율이 높다는 장점이 있지만, 독성이 있어 환경과 인체에 해롭다. 이러한 용매를 대체하기 위해 비 염소계 용매에 대한 많은 연구가 이루어지고 있지만, 낮은 용해도와 낮은 효율 등의 한계가 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 비 염소계 용매와 첨가제를 사용하여 단점을 극복하고, 염소계 용매를 대체할 수 있는 용매 시스템을 연구하였다. 염소계 용매인 CB를 사용한 광 전지는 3.05%의 효율을 나타냈다. 비 염소계 용매인 XY만 사용되었을 때는 광 전지 성능이 감소하였지만, DPE 및 DBE 첨가제를 사용했을 때 각각 3.27%, 3.52%의 효율을 나타내며 광 전지 성능이 향상되었다. 효율 향상의 원인을 파악하기 위해 AFM, TEM 및 2D GIXD를 활용하여 모폴로지 분석을 진행하였고, 전하 이동도를 측정하였다. 이러한 분석을 통해 비 염소계 용매와 첨가제가 광 전지에 유리한 큰 도메인의 모폴로지를 형성하고, 전하의 이동을 향상시킴으로써 광 전지 성능이 향상됨을 확인하였다. 이러한 결과는 비 염소계 용매가 염소계 용매의 사용을 대체하기에 충분함을 시사한다.
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