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Sweetness potencies of low-calorie sweeteners

Title
Sweetness potencies of low-calorie sweeteners
Authors
고원휘
Issue Date
2019
Department/Major
대학원 식품영양학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
정서진
Abstract
High sugar content in diet has been acknowledged as one of the many factors contributing to obesity and related health concerns . For nearly half a century, food industries have put in large effort to develop low-caloric sweeteners that can replace traditionally used sugars. Consequently, the recent consumption rate of low-caloric sweetener has drastically increased. Novel low-caloric sweetener that can satisfactorily substitute the conventionally used bulk sweeteners such as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup, from both food industry and consumer perspective, is still on the search. When a low caloric sweeteners is developed, measuring the sweetness potency as well as the sweetness quality of the sweetener would be the first step to check on among many physico-chemical properties. The matters become complicated since the sweetener’s sweetness potency and quality changes depending on the concentration level as well as the food system to which the sweetener is applied. The result of sweetener potency of a sweetener may also vary depending on method employed for measurement. Also, it is difficult to substitute sucrose with a single low-caloric sweetener since low-caloric sweeteners carry sensory characteristics such as bitter taste and astringency depending on the type. Due to there different sensory and physico-chemical characteristics of sweeteners, blending different types of sweeteners can be strategically more effective and successful to replace sucrose than searching for a single sucrose substitute. The present study aimed: 1) to investigate the effect of sweetener concentration range on the accuracy of sweetness potency measurement (Study 1); and 2) to analyze the characteristics of each sample according to the sweetness contribution considering the relative sweetness of each concentration of sweeteners and try to see the change of sweetness intensity such as suppression and synergy effect. 5 and 7 types of sweeteners were used in Study 1 and 2, respectively. Ten trained panelists analyzed the sensory characteristics of sweeteners by genetic descriptive analysis method. The attribute intensities were rated on a 15 point numerical scale. A regression analysis was conducted on the concentration-response (C-R) curve of each sweetener. In the case of validation test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to test the presence of significant differences between the sweetness intensities of target sweetener and sucrose control sample. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was conducted to visually summarize the sensory characteristics of sweeteners evaluated in the validation test. In the study 1, overall, the present study showed that the sweetness potencies for bulk sweeteners changed little while sweetness potencies of intense sweeteners drastically changed depending on the concentration level. Additionally, the prediction of sweetness potency measured at wide concentration range was less accurate than that measured at narrower range. One of the main reasons for this inaccurate prediction in WR is the utilization of inappropriate initial relative sweetness potency to generate SEC of target sample. It seems that a single sweetness potency value applicable to generate SEC have a limited concentration range that it can cover especially when the sweetness potency is susceptible to change notably at varied sweetener concentration level. Thus, the concentration range of sample set that are to evaluate together should be carefully set up to improve accuracy of the measurement. In the study 2, confirmed the synergies of various combinations of sucrose and bulk sweeteners bases at different concentrations. As a result, the synergistic effect was different depending on the combination and concentration of sweeteners. In total, the synergistic effect among the 48combinations was about 20%. This is because, as mentioned above, the relative sweetness is applied differently according to the concentration of the ratio applied at the time of combination through the model calculated in the preceding study. In the case of intense sweeteners, considering the characteristic that the sweetness potency decrease sharply as the concentration increases, synergism will not be exerted in such a combination. In the case of a combination of sweetness similar to sucrose, the bitter taste of most combinations was significantly higher. However, as reported in other studies, bitter tasted of rebaudioside A, which has strong bitter taste when used alone, decreased when mixed with other sweeteners. This study has limitations in the case of mixing two kinds of sweeteners. The results showed that sweetness and bitter taste were different according to the mixing ratio of bulk sweeteners and intense sweeteners. Therefore, it is anticipated that the combination of the three components and the four components will reduce the bitter taste and show synergy effect.;최근 체중의 증가와 건강문제로 인해 칼로리 소비의 감소가 중요한 문제가 되고 있다. 설탕의 과다 섭취는 여러 건강 문제를 야기시켜 설탕의 대체 역할을 하는 감미제의 필요성이 대두되고 있다. 거의 반세기동안 식품 산업은 전통적으로 사용된 설탕을 대체할 수 있는 저칼로리 감미제를 개발하기 위해 많은 노력을 기울여왔고, 그 결과 저칼로리 감미제의 최근 소비율은 급격히 증가했다. 따라서 식품 산업 및 소비자 관점 모두에서 설탕 또는 high fructose corn syrup과 같은 통상적으로 사용되는 bulk sweeteners를 만족스럽게 대체할 수 있는 새로운 저칼로리 감미제의 연구는 계속되고있다. 본 연구에서는 여러 종류의 저칼로리 감미제에 대해 20-30대 여성을 대상으로 감미제의 상대감미도를 정확히 예측함에 있어 농도 범위의 영향을 분석하고 두 종류의 감미제를 혼합하였을 때의 감각적 특성과 시너지효과를 분석, 비교하고자 하였다. 연구 1에는 5종류, 연구 2에는 7종류의 감미제를 사용하여 묘사분석을 실시하였다. 회귀분석을 통해 농도-반응함수를 계산하였으며, 일반 선형 모형을 이용한 분산분석과 다중요인분석, 주성분분석(PCA)를 이용하여 결과를 분석하였다. 연구 1에서는 bulk sweeteners는 전반적으로 농도가 증가하여도 상대감미도는 큰 변화 없이 일정하게 유지된 반면, intense sweeteners는 농도가 증가할수록 상대감미도가 크게 감소함을 보였다. 또한 넓은 농도에서의 상대감미도는 좁은 농도에서보다 덜 정확하게 예측되었다. 이러한 부정확성의 이유 중 하나는 시료 세트를 구성함에 있어 부적절한 초기 상대감미도를 적용하였기 때문이다. 구성에 있어 단일 상대감미도를 적용하는 것은 특히 감미도가 다양한 감미제 농도 수준에서 현저하게 변화할 때 그것을 모두 반영하기에 제한된 농도 범위를 갖는 것으로 사료된다. 따라서 함께 평가하는 시료 세트의 농도 구성 범위는 측정의 정확성을 높이기 위해 신중하게 설정되어야 한다. 연구 2에서는 설탕과 bulk sweeteners를 기반으로 여러 감미제를 혼합하였을 때의 시너지 효과를 확인하였다. 결과적으로 시너지 효과는 감미제의 조합 및 구성 비율에 따라 상이했다. 전체적으로 48개의 조합 중 시너지 효과가 나타난 조합은 10개, 약 20%로 다른 연구에 비해 비교적 적게 나타났다. 이는 앞서 언급하였던 것처럼 선행연구로 계산된 모델을 통해 조합 시 적용되는 비율의 농도에 따라 상대감미도를 다르게 적용하였기 때문이다. Intense sweeteners의 경우 농도가 증가함에 따라 상대감미도가 급격히 감소되는 특성을 고려한다면 이렇게 조합하였을 시 시너지가 발휘되기는 어려울 것으로 사료된다. 설탕과 유사한 단맛을 보인 조합의 경우에도 대부분 조합의 쓴맛은 유의적으로 강하게 나타났다. 하지만 다른 연구에서 보고된 것처럼 rebaudioside A의 경우 단독으로 사용했을 때 쓴맛이 강하게 발현되던 것이 다른 시료와 혼합하면서 감소함을 보였다.
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