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2015 개정 교육과정 중학교 기술ㆍ가정 교과서 '인간발달과 가족' 영역에 나타난 다문화교육 내용 분석

Title
2015 개정 교육과정 중학교 기술ㆍ가정 교과서 '인간발달과 가족' 영역에 나타난 다문화교육 내용 분석
Other Titles
Analysis of Multi-Cultural Education Contents of ‘Human Development and Family’ Area of Middle School Technology·Home Economics Textbook in accordance with 2015 Revised Curriculum
Authors
이성민
Issue Date
2018
Department/Major
교육대학원 가정과교육전공
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
유난숙
Abstract
With the recent development of IC (Information Communications), there is a breaking nation boundary between the entire world, and keener international communications and interchanges have been made. The increase of international marriage and inflow of foreign laborers have brought about the rise of multi-cultural family that leads to the school admittance of children of multi-cultural family. These developments result in the emphasis on the importance of multi-cultural education that the school districts ought to provide. The purpose of this research study is to analyze, according to each textbook and analysis concept, how multi-cultural education contents are reflected in 'Human Development and Family' area of middle school technology. home economics textbook in accordance with 2015 revised curriculum. To attain the purpose, the study applied the analysis criteria of multi-cultural education contents developed in the research by Back Eun-gyeong (2014), selecting as the research subject, ' 'Human Development and Family' area in five different kinds of the textbook of 「Technology. Home Economics 1ㆍ2」(total 10 volumes) written in accordance with 2015 revised curriculum. The research results of the study can be summarized as follows. First, it was analyzed how multi-cultural education contents of 'Human Development and Family' area of middle school technology. home economics textbook in accordance with 2015 revised curriculum are reflected into five different kinds of the textbook. The result showed that E Textbook of five different kinds of the textbook accounted for the highest frequency in multi-cultural education contents. Subsequently B and A Textbooks accounted for the second and third-highest frequency, respectively in turn. C Textbook took up the lowest frequency. The feature of each textbook can be summarized as follows. In the case of A Textbook firstly, identity and equality contents, among analysis concepts of multi-cultural education, were described in association with multi-cultures through texts and pictures containing a quite a few enormous volumes, following B Textbook and E Textbook, respectively in turn. Among components of co-operation, interdependency content (C3) was mentioned only in A and B Textbooks. E Textbook was followed by B Textbook in a lot of multi-cultural education contents. For concepts of multi-cultural education, identity, diversity and co-operation contents except for equality content were described in association with multi-cultures, through texts and pictures containing a lot of volumes, and learning activities, compared with the contents included in other textbooks. In the case of identity, 'self-identity and collective identity (I1)' contents were included more than the ones in other textbooks, while the components of the understanding on Korean tradition and contemporary culture (I2) were not mentioned. In the case of diversity, 'various viewpoints (D2)' content was focused on. Volumes of learning or contents registered in the textbooks showed a level higher than the average that was not proved low. C Textbook was proved insufficient in the frequency of dealing with multi-cultural education and concrete contents. A Textbook included less multi-cultural education contents than D textbook did. There were no stark differences from other textbooks. E Textbook represented the highest frequency in multi-cultural education contents among five different kinds of the textbook. In particular, a great deal equality content was described to a marked extent, which evidences the textbook has a good point to provide the education and training on equality in absence of equality and discrimination. It can be said that the textbook has another good point to provide the guideline on the features of various multi-cultural family, given the fact that the textbook is the only one mentioning the component of 'various people group (DI)' and the component of 'cultural diversity (D4)' out of diversity. Based on the research results of the study, stated above, it was identified that there are differences in frequency of multi-cultural education contents from each textbook, and all the textbooks helped learners enhance values required in multi-cultural society and understand through text contents, pictures or a wide variety of activity tasks. In this regard, it can be advised that home economics teachers need to teach, relying on a wide range of activity tasks that are included in kinds of each five textbook, in order to realize multi-cultural family, steadily. Second, it was analyzed how multi-cultural education contents of 'Human Development and Family' area of middle school technology. home economics textbooks in accordance with 2015 revised curriculum are reflected according to each analysis concept. It was found that co-operation content reached the highest frequency. Identity and diversity contents reached the second and third highest frequency, respectively in turn, while equality content took up the lowest frequency. Subsequently, A and B Textbooks accounted for the high frequency in identity content, while diversity and equality contents showed the highest frequency in B Textbook and E Textbook, respectively in turn. In the case of co-operation content, there were no big differences from each textbook, but B and E textbooks showed the highest frequency. The research results of the study suggest as follows. First, it was confirmed that home economics subject establishes self and identity, respects and accepts family changes and various family patterns from multi-viewpoints, and forms family community culture from the perspectives of gender equality without prejudice. Ultimately, it can be concluded that the academic subject is the one that enables learners to learn how individuals and families co-operate and show mutual consideration, and how all can co-exist. Accordingly, home economics subject must play a central role for mature multi-cultural education culture by including practical inference-based contents to address practical problems, with the main focus on the theme related to the lives of adolescents of multi-cultural families. Second, the school districts need to provide proper guidance to adolescents of multi-cultural family that have each different cultural background, so that they could develop a critical thinking way to create desirable culture, overcoming various cultural differences. In addition, new reeducation training programs for teachers in relation to multi-cultual education need to be provided and expanded so as to develop and pervade an effective teaching method on multi-cultural education. Third, technology. home economics textbook needs to deal with analysis concepts of multi-cultural education in a balanced manner. According to the analytic outcome on multi-cultural education contents of middle school technology. home economics textbook in accordance with 2015 revised curriculum, 'co-operation' was included much. Home economics teachers need to consider in depth not only 'co-operation' but also identity, diversity and equality necessary for basic civil education targeting all students living in multi-cultural era are included to a proportionate ratio in the relevant textbook, when choosing a textbook. Forth, it is required to connect a closer and more systemic link between fulfillment objective, learning objective, and families, and between learning contents and learning activities, in order to apply the objective of multi-cultural education into technology. home economics textbook in a more systemic manner. Lastly, home economics school teachers teaching multi-cultural education need to provide insights necessary for not only individual but also social perspectives, and show an attitude to understand and accept diversity of adolescents. Also, they must receive administrative affair supports for multi-cultural family. In order to complement the limits of the research, the study is to propose as follows. In the first place, the study analyzed ‘Human development and family’ area of middle school technology·home economics textbook in accordance with 2015 revised curriculum, based on the analysis criteria of precent studies, and can draw a different result according to content analysis criteria. Taking it into account, subsequent study needs to research education contents relation to multi-culture in accordance with 2015 revised curriculum, based on multiple analysis criteria. In the second place, middle school technology-home economic textbook in accordance with 2015 revised curriculum is organized with total 12 kinds, but the study analyzed only five kinds of textbook. Therefore, the rest of seven different kinds of the textbook need to be extended to the objects to analyze, and consider in this regard.;본 연구의 목적은 백은경(2014)의 연구에서 개발된 다문화교육 내용 분석기준을 활용하여 2015 개정 교육과정 중학교 기술ㆍ가정 교과서의󰡐인간발달과 가족󰡑영역에서 다문화교육 내용이 어떻게 반영되고 있는지 교과서별ㆍ분석개념별로 분석하는 데 있다. 분석대상은 2015 개정 교육과정에 따라 집필된 5종「기술ㆍ가정 1ㆍ2」교과서(총 10권)󰡐인간발달과 가족󰡑영역이다. 본 연구의 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 2015 개정 교육과정 중학교 기술ㆍ가정 교과서의󰡐인간발달과 가족󰡑 영역에서 다문화교육 내용이 5종의 교과서별로 어떻게 반영되었는지 분석한 결과, 5종의 교과서 중 전체 다문화교육 내용이 가장 높은 빈도를 나타낸 것은 E 교과서였고, 다음으로 B 교과서, A 교과서의 순서였으며 가장 낮은 빈도를 나타낸 것은 C 교과서였다. 이와 같이 교과서마다 제시한 다문화교육 내용의 빈도는 차이가 있으나 다문화 사회에 필요한 가치를 함양할 수 있도록 하는 본문 내용과 그림을 활용하여 학습자의 이해를 돕거나 다양한 활동과제를 제시하고 있었다. 이에 가정과교사는 다문화교육을 충실히 실행하기 위하여 교과서 종류별로 다양하게 제시된 활동과제를 참고하는 것이 필요하다고 할 수 있다. 둘째, 2015 개정 교육과정 중학교 기술ㆍ가정 교과서의󰡐인간발달과 가족󰡑영역에서 다문화교육 내용이 분석개념별로 어떻게 반영되었는지 분석해 본 결과, 가장 높은 빈도를 보이는 것은 협력이며, 그 다음이 정체성, 다양성의 순서였고, 평등성에 대한 내용은 가장 낮은 빈도를 나타내고 있었다. 그리고 정체성에 높은 빈도를 나타낸 것은 A, B 교과서였고, 다양성은 B 교과서, 평등성은 E 교과서가 가장 높은 빈도를 보였다. 그리고 협력은 교과서별로 큰 차이는 없으나 B, E 교과서가 가장 높은 빈도를 나타내었다. 본 연구결과에 따른 시사점은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 가정교과는 자아 및 정체성을 형성하고, 다양한 관점에서 가족의 변화를 이해하고 다양한 가족의 형태를 존중하고 수용하며, 편견 없는 양성 평등한 관점에서 가족 공동체 문화를 형성하여 궁극적으로 개인과 가정이 서로 협력하고 배려하면서 모두가 공존할 수 있는 내용을 배울 수 있는 교과임을 확인할 수 있다. 따라서 가정교과는 다문화 청소년의 삶과 연계된 내용을 중심으로 실천적 문제를 해결할 수 있도록 실천적 추론을 할 수 있는 내용 구성으로 이루어져 보다 성숙한 다문화교육 문화에 중추적인 역할을 기여해야 한다. 둘째, 학교현장에서는 문화 배경이 서로 다른 다문화 청소년의 다양한 문화 차이를 벗어나 바람직한 문화를 창조할 수 있는 비판적인 사고를 기를 수 있도록 지도해야 한다. 더불어 다문화교육과 관련한 교사의 재교육 연수 프로그램 신설, 확충으로 다문화교육에 대한 효과적인 수업 방법의 개발과 보급이 이루어져야 한다. 셋째, 기술ㆍ가정 교과서에서 다문화교육의 분석개념들이 균형 있게 다루어져야 한다. 2015 개정 교육과정 중학교 기술ㆍ가정 교과서의 다문화교육 내용을 분석한 결과,󰡐협력󰡑이 많이 분포되었다. 가정과교사들은 교과서를 선정할 때 다문화 시대를 살아갈 모든 학생들이 기본적인 시민교육이 이루어지기 위해서󰡐협력󰡑뿐 아니라 정체성, 다양성, 평등성이 교과서에 고른 분포가 이루어졌는지 고려하는 것이 필요하다. 넷째, 다문화교육의 목표가 기술ㆍ가정 교과서에 보다 체계적으로 적용되기 위해서는 가정과의 성취목표와 학습목표, 학습내용과 학습활동 간에 보다 긴밀하고 체계적인 연계가 필요하다. 다섯째, 학교현장에서 다문화교육을 지도하는 가정과교사는 개인적 시각 외에 사회적 시각을 제공할 수 있는 지식과 더불어 청소년의 다양성을 이해하고 받아들일 준비가 필요하며, 이와 더불어 다문화교육 행정적 업무지원이 병행되어야 할 것이다. 본 연구의 한계점과 이를 보완하기 위한 추후 연구의 제언은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 이 연구는 선행 연구의 분석기준으로 중학교 기술ㆍ가정 교과서의󰡐인간발달과 가족󰡑영역을 분석한 것으로 내용 분석의 기준에 따라 다른 결과를 얻을 수 있다. 따라서 다양한 분석 기준에서 2015 개정 교육과정의 다문화 관련 교육 내용을 연구하는 후속 연구가 이루어져야 한다. 둘째, 2015 개정 교육과정 중학교 기술ㆍ가정 교과서가 총 12종이지만, 본 연구는 5종만을 대상으로 분석하였다. 따라서 나머지 7종의 교과서에 대해 분석 대상을 확대하여 살펴볼 필요가 있다.
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