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TM-25659-induced activation of FGF21 level decreases insulin resistance and inflammation in skeletal muscle via GCN2 pathways
- TM-25659-induced activation of FGF21 level decreases insulin resistance and inflammation in skeletal muscle via GCN2 pathways
- Jung J.G.; Yi S.-A.; Choi S.-E.; Kang Y.; Kim T.H.; Jeon J.Y.; Bae M.A.; Ahn J.H.; Jeong H.; Hwang E.S.; Lee K.-W.
- Ewha Authors
- SCOPUS Author ID
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- Molecules and Cells
- vol. 38, no. 12, pp. 1037 - 1043
- FGF21; GCN2; Inflammation; Insulin resistance; TM-25659
- Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology
- SCI; SCIE; SCOPUS; KCI
- The TAZ activator 2-butyl-5-methyl-6-(pyridine-3-yl)-3- [2'-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl]-3H-imidazo[4,5- b]pyridine] (TM-25659) inhibits adipocyte differentiation by interacting with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. 1 TM-25659 was previously shown to decrease weight gain in a high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. However, the fundamental mechanisms underlying the effects of TM-25659 remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of TM-25659 on skeletal muscle functions in C2 myotubes and C57BL/6J mice. We studied the molecular mechanisms underlying the contribution of TM-25659 to palmitate (PA)-induced insulin resistance in C2 myotubes. TM-25659 improved PAinduced insulin resistance and inflammation in C2 myotubes. In addition, TM-25659 increased FGF21 mRNA expression, protein levels, and FGF21 secretion in C2 myotubes via activation of GCN2 pathways (GCN2-phosphoeIF2α- ATF4 and FGF21). This beneficial effect of TM-25659 was diminished by FGF21 siRNA. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet for 30 weeks. The HF-diet group was randomly divided into two groups for the next 14 days: the HF-diet and HF-diet + TM-25659 groups. The HF diet + TM-25659- treated mice showed improvements in their fasting blood glucose levels, insulin sensitivity, insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and inflammation, but neither body weight nor food intake was affected. The HF diet + TM- 25659-treated mice also exhibited increased expression of both FGF21 mRNA and protein. These data indicate that TM-25659 may be beneficial for treating insulin resistance by inducing FGF21 in models of PA-induced insulin resistance and HF diet-induced insulin resistance. © The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology. All rights reserved.
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