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TRMM precipitation radar and microwave imager observations of convective and stratiform rain over land and their theoretical implications
- TRMM precipitation radar and microwave imager observations of convective and stratiform rain over land and their theoretical implications
- Prabhakara C.; Iacovazzi R. Jr.; Yoo J.-M.
- Ewha Authors
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- Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan
- Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 1183 - 1197
- SCIE; SCOPUS
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- Observations of brightness temperature, Tb, made over land regions by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometer are analyzed with the help of nearly simultaneous measurements of the vertical profiles of reflectivity factor, Z, made by the Precipitation Radar (PR) onboard the TRMM satellite. Furthermore, this analysis is done separately over convective and stratiform rain regions. This examination reveals a clear relationship between TMI and PR data. Possible explanation for this relationship is explored with the help of radiative transfer calculations. With this approach, we demonstrate that the 85 GHz observations of TMI can be simulated crudely from the observations of Z. However, the 37 and 19 GHz observations are not as well simulated, possibly because of horizontal non-uniformity in the hydrometeor distribution in the broad footprints of these channels and contamination introduced by land-surface emissivity. On the other hand, from TMI and PR observations, we find that the brightness temperature difference (T19-T37) minimizes these sources of error. Our simulations of (T19-T37) over convective rain regions are in reasonable agreement with this finding. This investigation indicates that the TMI 85 GHz channel yields the best information about rain over tropical land, because it has minimal surface contamination, strong extinction, and a fine footprint. The brightness temperature difference (T19-T37) can supplement the information given by the 85 GHz channel.
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