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특성화고 학생들의 진로결정자기효능감과 결과기대, 진로탐색몰입, 학습지향성 간 구조적 관계

Title
특성화고 학생들의 진로결정자기효능감과 결과기대, 진로탐색몰입, 학습지향성 간 구조적 관계
Other Titles
Investigating the Structural Relationship among Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Outcome expectation, Commitment to Vocational Exploration, and Learning Orientation for students at Specialized Vocational High Schools
Authors
이미나
Issue Date
2015
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육공학전공
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
이정민
Abstract
산업구조가 고도화 되고 과학기술이 발전하는 과정에서 나타난 경제적 환경 변화는 직업구조를 급변시키고 있다. 이러한 흐름은 개인의 진로선택 폭을 확대시킴과 동시에 청소년들의 진로발달 불확실함과 모호함을 야기하였다. 특히 특성화고등학교는 최근 진로와 관련하여 많은 혼란에 빠져있다. 대학 진학이 제도적으로 확대되면서 직업교육이라는 본래의 목적 이외에 부차적인 이유로 진학을 선택하는 학생들이 많아지고 있기 때문이다. 그 결과 특성화고 학생들은 대학 진학과 취업 사이에서 고민하는 경우가 많으며, 하나의 진로를 선택하였다 하더라도 외부적 요인들로 인해 갈등을 겪기도 한다. 대입을 목표로 하는 학생의 경우 적성에 맞지 않는 직업교육을 받아야 하며, 고등교육에 대한 욕구가 증대되고 있는 사회적 분위기로 인해 취업희망자 역시 망설이게 되는 것이다. 이러한 현상들에 비추어 보아 특성화고 학생들을 더 많은 진로지도가 필요한 집단이라 판단할 수 있다. 특히 청소년기의 진로발달은 개인의 삶 전반에 걸친 진로·직업관련 수행에 밀접한 영향을 미치기 때문에 일정시점에서의 진로과업 뿐만 아니라 지속적으로 스스로의 능력을 개발해 나가는 적극적인 태도의 함양에 관심을 기울여야 할 것이다. 이에 본 연구에서는 잠정적 진로선택단계에서의 중요한 진로과업으로 강조되는 진로탐색몰입과 함께 청소년기 이후 직업을 영위해 나가는 개인의 성과에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 학습지향성에 초점을 맞추어 이들 요인에 영향을 미치는 변인과의 구조적 관계와 직․간접효과를 규명하고자 한다. 본 연구의 연구문제는 다음과 같다. 연구문제 1. 특성화고등학교 학생들의 진로결정자기효능감과 결과기대, 진로탐색몰입, 학습지향성 간 구조적 관계가 성립하는가? 연구문제 2. 특성화고등학교 학생들의 진로결정자기효능감과 결과기대, 진로탐색몰입, 학습지향성 간 직·간접효과가 존재하는가? 연구문제의 검증을 위해 서울시 소재의 A여자 마케팅특성화고의 2학년 재학생 239명을 대상으로 수집된 자료를 분석하였다. 연구 분석 방법으로는 구조모형방정식모형 분석 방법을 사용하였으며, 이를 위해 SPSS를 활용해 기술통계 및 상관분석, 신뢰도분석, 타당성 분석을 실시하였고 AMOS를 활용해 측정모형과 구조모형을 검증하였다. 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 특성화고 학생들의 진로결정자기효능감과 결과기대, 진로탐색몰입, 학습지향성 간의 구조적 관계는 적합한 것으로 나타났다. 둘째, 특성화고 학생들의 진로결정자기효능감은 결과기대와 진로탐색몰입에 유의한 직접효과를 나타냈다. 이는 자신의 진로를 통제할 수 있는 긍정적인 희망과 관련된 자기효능감 수준의 향상은 성공적인 진로발달을 위해 반드시 필요하며, 스스로에 대한 신념이 진로에 대한 몰입을 유발하는데 영향을 미친다는 것을 의미하는 결과이다. 반면 진로결정자기효능감은 학습지향성에 직접적인 영향을 미치지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 특성화고 학생들의 결과기대는 진로탐색몰입과 학습지향성 유의한 직접효과를 나타냈다. 이러한 결과는 개인이 인지하는 진로에 대한 성공 가능성이 진로결정에 따른 발달 과정과 학습에 더욱 몰입하게 할 수 있음을 시사한다. 한편 변인간 매개효과를 통한 간접효과를 검증한 결과 진로결정자기효능감은 결과기대를 매개로 하여 진로탐색몰입과 학습지향성에 간접효과를 나타내는 것을 확인 하였다. 감정통제가 더 많이 요구되는 특성화고 학생들에게 전략적 요인으로서 불안감을 해소하고 즐거움을 느낌으로 인해 진로 및 학습 활동에 몰두할 수 있도록 촉진하는데 결과기대가 중요하게 작용함을 알수 있는 결과이다. 또한 진로결정자기효능감이 그다지 높지 않더라도 특성화고 학생들이 긍정적인 진로발달과 학습의도를 증진시키기 위해 진로지도 영역에서 결과기대를 향상시킬 수 있는 구체적인 교수학습전략을 모색할 필요가 있음을 시사한다. 본 연구의 제한점과 제언은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 본 연구는 서울시 소재의 A여자 마케팅 특성화고의 2학년 재학생 239명으로 한정되어있다. 따라서 본 연구의 결과를 모든 특성화고 학생들에게 일반화하기에는 어려움이 있다. 이에 성별과 특성화계열에 따른 결과 차이를 확인하고 나아가 일반계고 학생들과의 비교를 통해 각각의 집단이 처한 학업적 환경과 진로문제에 대한 이해를 넓힐 수 있는 후속연구가 필요할 것이다. 둘째, 본 연구는 모든 변수들을 동일한 시점에 측정하였다. 진로결정은 시간이 지남에 따라 변화할 수 있는 가능성을 지니고 있으므로 이에 따라 관련변인들도 변화할 수 있음을 고려해야 한다. 따라서 향후 특성화고 학생들의 진로탐색몰입수준을 높일 수 있는 체계적인 진로지도 프로그램의 설계, 적용을 통해 효과성을 검증하는 시도가 필요할 것이다. 또한 특성화고가 지닌 특수한 배경에 대한 충분한 이해를 바탕으로 특성화고 학생들의 학습지향성에 영향을 미치는 다양한 변인을 밝히는 후속 연구가 필요함을 제안한다.; In the process of the structural upgrade of industry and technology advancement, the transformed economic circumstance is changing job structure rapidly. Such a flow expanded a range of individual career selection, at the same time, causing uncertainty and ambiguity of juveniles' career development. Particularly, specialized vocational high schools are recently faced with many confusions on career. Since, along with institutional expansion of college entrance, the number of students selecting entrance by an additional reason increases rather than their own purpose of occupational education. As a result, there are many cases that students at specialized vocational high schools, considering about between entering a college or a profession, have conflicts by external factors even if they selected the career. Students who want to enter a college have to take occupational education unfitting for their aptitude and come to hesitate about employment because of a social atmosphere demand for higher education is increasing. Considering such phenomena, students at specialized vocational high schools may be regarded as a group needing for more career guidance and the existing career guidance shall be changed. Besides, given that the aim of systemic career education is cultivation of competencies of career development, it suggests that an attempt to measure and understand a level of competencies of career development is to be made for guidance to help such students' positive career development. For these reasons, students at Specialized Vocational High Schools need to provide more specific career guideline. Specially, career developmental process of adolescence has effect on job competence during a life. It is considered not only to improve active attitude of developing learner's competencies, but also to prepare their career for a long time. Hence, the purpose of this study is to put focus on career decision making self-efficacy, commitment to vocational exploration as the factors which can determine leaning orientation, dependent variable and create a model describing the relationship among them. Commitment to vocational exploration is one of the sub-factors of career decision commitment. Highschool students should immerse themselves in a proper and rational career decision, and its preparation with objective understanding on themselves and their future occupations. At the same time, they are supposed to experience anxiety and the possibility of failure. For this purpose, one of the important developmental tasks is commitment to vocational exploration. Therefore, it shows that a higher level of commitment to vocational exploration process relates to successful career development. Also, it is a process to be emphasized for students at specialized vocational high schools who enter a such period earlier than their peers and have a relatively short time for career exploration and commitment. However, learning orientation means the attention of developing learner’s capability through challenging new knowledge and learning tasks. In this respect, learning orientation should be considered as a factor of career development related to engage in profession. This research set up influence variables of self-efficacy and outcome expectation – which effect two dependent variables and are considered as important factors in SCCT(Social Cognitive Career Theory), for motivating students to do certain actions and finally reach a successful performances. It is suggested that a more specific research for teaching-learning strategy is needed for students at Specialized Vocational High Schools to enhance outcome expectation in the area of career guidance, so that they can bring themselves a positive career development and improve their learning orientation. Many existing precedent studies showed that career decision-making self-efficacy has significant relations with various career-related variables and especially is a strong predictor for career maturity. Also, it is expected that career decision-making self-efficacy having a close relation with career maturity has a significant effect on the career-related achievement variable in that selection of a specialized vocational high schools is an important career decision-making in adolescence and an event causing a change to career maturity. Outcome expectation based on such Self-Efficacy also turned out to take a mediating role for continuing certain behavior, So, it is expected to have direct and indirect effects on competencies of career development. Research topics of this study are as follows. Research Topic 1. What is the structural relationship among career decision making self-efficacy, outcome expectation, commitment to vocational exploration, and learning orientation? Research Topic 2. Is there direct/indirect effect among the career decision making self-efficacy, outcome expectation, commitment to vocational exploration, and learning orientation? To verify research topics, this study analyzed data collected for 239 2nd grade students at A girls' specialized vocational high school for Marketing located at Seoul. As for the analytic methods, structural equation model was used, and descriptive statistics, correlation, reliability and validity analyses were conducted using SPSS, also measurement and structural models were verified using AMOS. Research findings are as follows. Firstly, for students at specialized vocational high schools, it revealed that there are adequate structural relations among career decision-making self-efficacy, outcome expectation, commitment to vocational exploration, and learning orientation. Secondly, for students at specialized vocational high schools, it showed that career decision-making self-efficacy has a significant direct effect on outcome expectation and commitment to vocational exploration and learning orientation. It means that improvement of self-efficacy related to positive hope for controlling their own career is necessarily required for successful career development, and belief in themselves has an effect on triggering commitment to career. On the other hand, career decision-making self-efficacy had no direct effect on learning orientation Thirdly, for students at specialized vocational high schools, outcome expectation had a significant direct effect on commitment to vocational exploration and learning orientation. Such a result suggests that a potential for successful career individuals recognize make them be immersed in the career decision follow development process and learning. In the mean time, as a result of verifying a mediated effect among variables, it showed that outcome expectation, has a mediated effect on the relationship among career decision-making self-efficacy and commitment to vocational exploration, career decision-making self-efficacy and learning orientation. learning orientation. It means, for students at specialized vocational high schools requiring more emotional control, increase of commitment to vocational exploration by career activities for removing anxiety and feeling joy as a strategic factor may be effective for enhancing competencies of career development. Also, even in a case of lower career decision-making self-efficacy and outcome expectation for students at specialized vocational high schools many efforts shall be made to help them with positive career development through reinforcement of commitment to vocational exploration. This study has limitations and suggestions as follows. Firstly, this study was limited to 239 2nd grade students at A girls' specialized vocational high school for marketing located at Seoul. Accordingly, research findings have difficulty in generalizing to every student at specialized vocational high schools. So, through identifying difference in results by gender and a specialization line and comparing with students at general high schools, follow-up study is required to expand understanding on each group's academic environments and career problems. Secondly, in this research, every variable was measured at the same time period. Since, career decision may be changed as time passes, a possibility that related variables may change shall be considered. Hence, it is necessary to verify effectiveness through designing and applying systemic career guidance programs with a view to increasing a level of commitment to vocational exploration for students at specialized vocational high schools. Furthermore, based on full understanding on specific backgrounds of specialized vocational high schools, this study suggests necessity of follow-up studies to examine multiple variables influencing on their students' learning orientation.
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