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초등학생의 자아표현을 위한 슈타이너의 미술교육
- 초등학생의 자아표현을 위한 슈타이너의 미술교육
- Other Titles
- Art education for self-expression of elementary students by Rudolf Steiner : Focusing on Form Drawing
- Issue Date
- 교육대학원 미술교육전공
- 이화여자대학교 교육대학원
- 본 연구의 목적은 슈타이너의 자아의 성장을 위한 독창적인 미술교육 방법 중의 하나인 포르멘(Formen)을 자아표현이라는 관점에서, 초등학교시기에 긍정적인 자아의 형성이 왜 중요하며, 포르멘이 어떻게 어린이의 자아인식과 형성, 성장에 영향을 줄 수 있는 지를 탐구해보고 포르멘의 교육적 함의를 되새겨 봄으로써 우리나라 미술교육의 방향을 모색하는 계기를 마련하고자 하는 것이다.
슈타이너가 창안한 미술교육의 방법인 포르멘은 선을 통해 내적인 본성을 체험하도록 하며 그러한 세계에 깊이 침잠함으로서 자아를 체험할 수 있다. 포르멘을 통해 시각, 운동감각, 균형감각, 촉감, 생명감각, 상상력이 일깨워지고 만나는 문제들을 어린이 스스로 해결해 나가면서 개성 있는 한 인간으로 성장한다. 또한 이루어진 모양을 내면화하는 과정을 통해 어린이의 영혼을 잠에서 깨워 정신으로 이끈다. 포르멘을 통해 어린이는 자아를 인식할 수 있으며, 포르멘을 통해 강해진 자아는 어린이가 세상을 마주하여 나아갈 때 자신의 길을 갈 수 있게 도와준다.
우리나라의 미술교육은 획일화된 미술수업에서 벗어나 아동의 발달단계에 맞는, 내면의 경험을 중시하고 자아의 체험으로 연결짓는 교육이 필요한 시점이다. 현재 인간과 세계를 새로운 관점에서 바라볼 것을 요청하고 있는 슈타이너의 교육사상에 기초한 포르멘은 자아를 강화해주고 아이들 내부의 내적인 리듬의 조화를 가능케 해준다. 슈타이너의 포르멘 수업은 우리의 미술교육에 훌륭한 모델을 제시해주고 있다고 하겠다.;Rudolf Steiner(1861~1925), was an education practitioner and education thinker who devoted to cultivation of whole man through Art of education (Erziehungskunst) based on his anthroposophy. The kernel of his education theory is to form an educational foundation for whole man development through harmony of body, soul and spirit.
The education theory of Rudolf Steiner is based on anthroposophical view of providing realistic idea on true nature of human and world to help human being identify the nature of life. The purpose of this education theory is to enhance the power inside the children and let them develop their own lives.
To develop one's own life is closely connected with self discovery, formation and growth. It is very important to help children to form a positive self-consciousness in the period they begin to develop the idea on themselves. Self is a part that explains the actual existence of human being. The true meaning of human can be identified only when he or she is identified based on the self. In other words, human being is an existence controlled by the spirit that lives inside the body. Elementary years are the decisive period that self-growth is made. According to Lowenfeld(1957), art activity is a method of developing self-recognition and self-idea to enhance the relationship with others (Re-ref. Kim, Dong Joon, 2000), which implicates that self can be developed efficiently through art education.
The purpose of this study is to explore why the positive self formation in elementary years is important and how Form drawing can affect self-recognition, formation and development with a view to Form drawing (Formenzeichnen), a creative art education for self-growth by Rudolf Steiner, as a way of self-expression. The study also purposes to review the educational implication of Form drawing to provide an opportunity to find an orientation of art education in Korea.
The study was progressed based on the original works of Rudolf Steiner, translated works that were published in Korea, researches, published theses, and the literatures in the periodicals. As a supplementary study, visits to Form drawing classes in an alternative school in Korea that pursues and practices the education of Rudolf Steiner and interviews with the teachers were performed to collect data which formed a foundation for our discussion.
Form Drawing, a method of art education created by Rudolf Steiner, enables the children to experience the original nature of inside through the lines and experience the self by immersing deeply in such inside world. Children are enlightened with their view, sense of movement, sense of balance, sense of touch, life-sense, and imagination. They are able to solve given problems by their own to grow as a person with unique characteristic. The Form drawing also enlightens the soule of a child and leads it to a level of spirit through a process of internalizing the formed shape. Children can recognize themselves through Form Drawing, and the self strengthened through Form drawing helps the children to face the world and make it their own way.
The educational implications of Form drawing for self-expression are as follows.
Firstly, it helps formation and growth of self. Form Drawing enlightens the personality that exists deep inside. Children are able to identify themselves with the lines to find and experience the new self while drawing. Form Drawing strengthens the self power that lies beneath the self of children, which, in turn helps the children to balance themselves throughout their lives.
Secondly, Form Drawing coexists with body, soul and mind, in other words, with every element of human. Therefore, it forms an integral person who pursues balance and harmony. The educational principal of steiner connotes such educational principal of integral person. Form Drawing is a representative type of educational art that realizes and practices such principal.
Art education in Korea needs to develop from the standardized art classes to an education that is customized to the development stage of children, focuses on the experience of inside and connects such experience to self experience. Form drawing, which lies its foundation on the educational idea of Rudolf Steiner who requests for a new view to human and the world, strengthens the self and enables the harmony of rhythms inside the children. It can be said that Form drawing class by Rudolf Steiner presents a great model to art classes in Korea.
This study is limited to a visit to a classroom in an alternative school that pursues Rudolf Steiner's education and literature research. It is expected that further study on Form drawing will be performed to provide Form drawing class that is in line with our current conditions in educational fields.
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