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西獨과 瑞典의 敎育改革에 對한 比較硏究
- 西獨과 瑞典의 敎育改革에 對한 比較硏究
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- 대학원 교육학과
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- The comparative study of educational reforms in West Germany and Sweden leads to the following conclusions:
1. The educational reform plan of the German Committee on Educational(Deutscher Ausschuss fur das Erziehungs-und Bildungswesen) was made on the basis of the idea of traditional pedagogical acholars, as it were, of talents of individual children, while that of Swedish School Committee(Svenska Skolutredningen) was made on the basis of the idea of equal educational opportunity.
2. There can be found a fundamental difference between the two countries in the procedure of making the educational reform plan. The plan of West Germany(Rahmenplan) was mainly based on the speculative judgement, while that of Sweden was based mainly on the findings obtained through social scientific researches.
3. The response of the people toward the educational reform plan was generally positive in Sweden, while that of German people toward the Rahmenplan was generally negative, because the extremely conservative groups as well as progressive groups were against it. However, it is similar in that the secondary school teachers tended to be strong in opposing the respective reform plans in both countries.
4. The educational administrative system of a country greatly concerns itself with the efficiency of putting the educational reform plan into effect. It can be concluded that the putting of the reform plan into reality is inefficient in West Germany as compared to Sweden, because the former has no ministry of education in the central government, while the latter has it.
5. As to the reform of language curriculum in the secondary school, the value of classical languages(Latin and Greek) decreased in Sweden because they were made elective subjects from the required, while that of classical languages was reaffirmed in West Germany through the plan of instituting the Studienschule, in which the traditional European culture is the core of the curriculum. These contrasting attitudes toward the classical languages simply show the different value system between two peoples; Germans value the tradition strongly, while Swedish value the development of social welfare highly.
6. The political ideology of Government Party gives great influence on the direction of school reform. Therefore, it should be taken for granted that the conservative ideology of German Christian Democratic Union it well reflected in the Rahmenplan, and that the progressive ideology of Swedish Social Democratic Party is well reflected in the reform plan of comprehensive school.
7. The industrial structure of a country has something to do with the educational reform. There is a tendency that the demands for unified elementary school and the comprehensive secondary school increase when the population engaged in the third industry exceeds that of the second industry. Nowadays, in the case of Sweden there is more population engaged in the third industry than that in the second industry, while in the case of West Germany the former is less than the latter.
8. The inequality of educational opportunity in the secondary school(Gymnasium) is greater in West Germany than in Sweden; however, the former is indifferent to this problem, while the latter makes it a fundamental principle to correct the problem.
9. West Germany has a tendency to deal with the enlargement of compulsory education formally, while Sweden tries not only to achieve such an education thoroughly through the social welfare program, but further takes reference even to the socio-psychological problems of youths whose families are in the low socio-economic status, such as social pressure and inferiority complex.
10. The future task of educational reform in the two countries is almost similar in terms of putting the comprehensive secondary school into effect; however, there will be a great difference in the degree of achieving the task. In West Germany, even the Forderstufe is not yet fully put into effect throughout the country, while the nine year comprehensive unified school is almost in full realization throughout Sweden and the new plan of comprehensive high school is about to put into effect.
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