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여중생의 부모-자녀 의사소통과 결혼관 및 자녀관

Title
여중생의 부모-자녀 의사소통과 결혼관 및 자녀관
Other Titles
A Study on Middle-school Girls Students' View of Marriage and of Children According to Their Parents-Adolescent communication
Authors
김유나
Issue Date
2012
Department/Major
교육대학원 가정과교육전공
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
주소현
Abstract
저출산 초고령화 사회를 급속히 맞이하고 있는 상황에서 본 연구는 여중생의 부모-자녀 의사소통이 결혼관 및 자녀관에 어떤 영향을 미치는지 알아보았다. 본 연구는 서울시 중랑구 소재 Y중 여학생 411명을 대상으로 설문지를 이용하여 부모-자녀 의사소통과 결혼관 및 자녀관의 관계를 파악하였으며 주요 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 여중생의 부모-자녀 의사소통은 아버지 보다 어머니와 개방적이며 원활한 의사소통을 하는 것으로 나타났다. 인구사회학적 특성 중 학교교육비 지원 여부와 이혼·별거 경험에 따라 집단 간 유의한 차이를 나타내었다. 둘째, 여중생의 결혼관은 5점 척도로 평균이 결혼이 꼭 필요하며 사회적으로 적절한 연령에 결혼해야 하며 가족에 중심을 두는 전통적결혼관은 2.99, 결혼하지 않은 상태에서 성관계나 동거와 같이 비제도적 방식을 허용하는 개방적결혼관 2.10, 개인의 만족과 성취를 위해 결혼시기를 늦츨 수 있다고 생각하는 결혼지연성 3.25, 남녀가 동등히 가족의 일을 분담해야 한다고 생각하는 가족공동역할분담은 4.08을 나타내었다. 학년이 높을수록 결혼지연성에 긍정적인 입장을 나타내었으며, 가족공동역할분담은 중학교 1학년에 비해 2, 3학년이 더욱 긍정적인 입장을 보여주어 오직 학년에 따라 유의한 차이를 나타내었다. 셋째, 여중생의 자녀관은 평균이 5점 척도에서 자녀필요성은 3.01, 개인의 목표에 따라 자녀 출산이나 입양의 시기를 늦출 수 있다고 여기는 자녀지연성은 2.29, 입양수용성 3.78, 결혼하지 않은 상태에서 자녀를 낳거나 입양하여 키울 수 있다는 비혼자녀허용성 2.27을 나타내었다. 자녀관은 사회인구학적 특성 중 학년과 학교교육비 지원여부(경제상황), 이혼·별거 경험 유무에 따라 집단 간 유의한 차이를 나타내었다. 자녀지연성과 입양수용성, 비혼자녀허용성에 있어서는 1학년이 가장 부정적인 입장을 보였다. 자녀필요성은 학교교육비를 지원 받는 저소득층 집단이 일반 가정에 비해 더욱 긍정적으로 생각하였으며, 이혼·별거 경험이 있는 학생들이 비혼자녀허용성에 있어서 더욱 부정적으로 생각하는 것으로 나타났다. 넷째, 아버지와의 의사소통에 따른 결혼관은 개방적결혼관, 결혼지연성, 가족공동역할분담에 유의한 차이를 나타내었다. 아버지와의 의사소통이 (하)집단이 개방적결혼관과 결혼지연성에서 더욱 긍정적인 태도를 나타내었으며, 가족공동역할분담에서는 아버지와의 의사소통 (상)집단의 점수가 가장 높게 나타났다. 어머니와의 의사소통에 따른 결혼관은 개방적결혼관, 가족공동역할분담에 유의한 차이를 나타내었다. 어머니와 가장 개방적인 의사소통을 하는 (상)집단이 개방적결혼관에 있어서 부정적이었으며, 가족공동역할분담에 있어서는 가장 긍정적 태도를 나타내었고, 집단 간 차이를 보였다. 부모-자녀 의사소통에 따른 자녀관에 있어서는 아버지와의 의사소통은 자녀지연성, 입양수용성, 비혼자녀허용성에 유의한 차이를 나타내었으며, 어머니와의 의사소통은 자녀필요성, 자녀지연성에 유의한 차이를 나타내었다. 자녀지연성에서는 아버지·어머니와의 의사소통이 가장 개방적인 (상)집단이 가장 부정적인 태도를 나타내었으며, 아버지와의 의사소통 (상)집단은 입양수용성이 가장 높게 나타나 집단 간 차이를 나타내었다. 본 연구는 연구대상이 한 학교로 국한되어 지역적, 계층적 특성을 포함하여 우리나라 여중생 집단에 일반화하는데 한계가 있다. 또한 부모-자녀 의사소통 응답 시 현재 함께 살고 있는 부모 중심으로 실시하여, 재혼가족의 경우 새부모와 친부모 사이에서의 관계를 규명하지는 못하였다. 하지만, 결혼관과 자녀관을 포함하는 가족가치관에 대한 선행연구들이 주로 사회인구학적 특성에 중점을 둔 반면, 본 연구는 사회인구학적 특성 이외에 부모-자녀 의사소통에 따라 여중생의 결혼관과 자녀관에 차이가 있음을 밝혔다는데 의의가 있다고 하겠다. 본 연구를 통해 제언한다면 조사 지역을 확대하여 표집 집단을 다양화하고, 결혼관 및 자녀관 측정을 위한 척도가 표준화되어 있지 않아 현대 가족의 다양한 모습을 나타내는 척도 개발이 이루어졌으면 한다. 본 연구로 보아 미래사회의 저출산 문제를 극복하기 위해서는 친사회적 가족가치관 형성을 위한 지원체제 및 부모·자녀 의사소통을 위한 부모 교육 프로그램 구축이 필요하다고 본다. 가족 형태의 영향 보다는 가족구성원 내에서 아버지, 또는 어머니가 각기 맺고 있는 의사소통 관계에 따라 결혼관과 자녀관 형성이 달라진다는 것을 파악하였다. 그러므로 가족구성원 중 부모 역할을 하는 각 각을 위한 의사소통 프로그램을 만들어야하며, 재혼가족, 한부모가족, 공동체가족, 다문화 가족, 친척과 함께 사는 경우 등의 다양한 가정환경 속에서 긍정적인 친사회적 가치관을 형성하기 위한 후속 연구를 위한 방향을 제시하였다는데 의의가 있다. 다양한 사회변화와 가족관계를 경험하고 있는 청소년들의 결혼, 가족, 생명의 소중한 가치를 통해 공감대를 형성하고 부모와 자녀 간의 긍정적인 의사소통을 통해 친사회적 가족가치관 형성을 돕는 것이 바람직하다고 여겨진다.;A Study on Middle-school Girls Students' View of Marriage and View of Children According to Their Parents-Adolescent communication Against the backdrop of rapidly entering into a low-fertility and super-aged society, this study investigated what effects the parent-adolescent communication has on middle-school girl students' view of marriage and of children. This study examined the relationship between the parent-adolescent communication and the views of marriage and children, using questionnaires targeting 411 girl students of Y Middle School located at Jungnang-gu, Seoul. The main findings are as follows: First, it was found that middle-school girl students engage in more open and smooth communication with their mothers than with their fathers. Significant differences were found among groups, according to the educational support and the experience of divorce or separation out of socio-demographic characteristics. Second, as for the middle-school girl students' view of marriage, they showed 2.99 points, according to 5-point scale, for the traditional view of marriage, where marriage is essential and should be conducted within socially adequate age, and emphasis is laid on family; 2.10 points for the open view of marriage, which permits non-conventional modes such as unmarried sexual relationship or cohabitation; 3.25 for the inclination for delayed marriage, which tolerates the postponement of marriage for an individual's satisfaction or accomplishment; and 4.08 for the equal sharing of household affairs, which shows the idea that male and female should equally share household affairs. The higher the grade, the more positive position they showed toward the inclination for delayed marriage. And, as for the equal sharing of household affairs, significant differences were found according to grades alone, for second-year students and third-year students showed more positive position toward it, compared to first-year students. Third, as for the middle-school girl students' view of children, they showed 3.01 according to the 5-point scale, for the necessity of children; 2.29 for inclination for having children late, which tolerates the postponement of the time of child-bearing or adoption according to an individual's goal; 3.78 for acceptance of adoption; and 2.27 for permissiveness of non-married having children, which shows the toleration of child-bearing or adoption under the non-married status. Significant differences were found among groups in the view of children, according to the grades, the educational support (economic conditions), and the experience of divorce or separation among socio-demographic characteristics. As for the inclination for having children late, the acceptance of adoption, and the permissiveness of non-married having children, first-year students showed the most negative position on them. As for the necessity of children, students from the low-income group who receive educational support showed more positive responses, compared to those from ordinary households; and it was found that students with experience of divorce or separation show more negative attitude toward the permissiveness of non-married having children. Fourth, as for the view of marriage according to communication with father, significant differences were found in the open view of marriage, the inclination for delayed marriage, and the equal sharing of household affairs. The (low) group as to communication with father showed more positive attitude toward the open view of marriage and the inclination for delayed marriage; and in the equal sharing of household affairs, the (high) group as to communication with father showed the highest scores. As for the view of marriage according to communication with mother, significant differences were found in the open view of marriage and the equal sharing of household affairs. The (high) group, which has the most open communication with mother, was negative toward the open view of marriage, and showed the most positive attitude toward the equal sharing of household affairs. And there were significant differences among groups. As for the view of children according to parent-child communication, in the case of communication with father, significant differences were found in the inclination for having children late, the acceptance of adoption, and the permissiveness of non-married having children; and in the case of communication with mother, significant differences were found in the necessity of children and the inclination for having children late. As for the inclination for having children late, the most open (high) group in the communication with mother showed the most negative attitude toward it; and the (high) group in communication with father showed the highest scores in the acceptance of adoption; and so significant differences were found according to groups. This study has limitations in its generalization to the situation of Korean middle-school girl students in general, including regional and hierarchical characteristics, for its subjects of survey are confined to one school. In addition, the response to parent-adolescent communication was focused on parents currently living together with the students, not clarifying the relationship with a new parent and a biological parent in case of remarriage. Nevertheless, it may be said that this study is meaningful in that it revealed the existence of differences in middle-school girl students' view of marriage and of children according to parent-adolescent communication aside from socio-demographic characteristics, while previous studies of values on family comprising the view of marriage and the view of children mostly focused on socio-demographic characteristics. It is suggested, based on this study, that the survey area be expanded to diversify sampling groups, and that a scale for measuring diverse aspects of modern family be developed, for there is no standardized scale for measuring the view of marriage and the view of children. In view of this study, it is deemed that it is necessary to build support systems for forming pro-social values on family as well as parental education programs for parent-adolescent communication, in order to overcome the problem of low fertility in future society. It was found that the view of marriage and the view of children are formed differently according to the communication relationship with father or mother within family members, rather than the type of family. Therefore, communication programs should be prepared for those who play a role of parents among family members. This study is also meaningful in that it proposed a direction for future studies to create positive pro-social values within diverse family backgrounds such as remarried family, single parent family, community family, multi-cultural family, the case of living together with relatives, and so on. It is considered desirable to help adolescents, who experience diverse social changes and family relations, form pro-social values on family through the development of a bond of sympathy on marriage, family, and the precious value of life, and through positive parent-adolescent communication.
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