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신라상형토기의 조형성과 생활상에 대한 고찰

신라상형토기의 조형성과 생활상에 대한 고찰
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교육대학원 미술교육전공
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Art is form that usually represents a characteristic culture of a nation, And it can also be said that, ceramic art is the embodiment of the national spirit, because they had lived with the earth which constitutes the material of the pottery. By studying the pattern, quality and appearance of the time-Less work of art, pottery, I could. trace the traditional life pattem and custom. of the ancient time and to discover an artistic propensity as well as the origin of Korean culture. Pottery has trans planted to Korea from the Middle Asia continent, appeared and used in the prehistonic age of Korea about B.C,, when it is supposed the beginning point of fixcing human life to one place. But the origin of Korean pottery is Gimhae pottery which had been developed in Young Nam district and Southern-coustal territories, and It is also to be called Silla primitive pottery that is an initiation of Silla pottery. In order to fined the first appearance of Korean pottery, 1 have to trace down to about 1'st century A.D. And I found that the most artistical ones are between the last part of 4th century and the beginning of 5th century A.D. Among prehistoric Korean potteries, there are plain course (smooth clay), comb pottery and painted pottery. They Influenced upon the three Kingdoms period when they started to improve a peculiar patterns of the period. The Gimhae pottery had influenced on Silla pottery, when are stone wares, whose tints are of bluish grey temper that emerges from deoxidized salt in the firing atmosphere that could be heated to extrenety high temperatrue. To trace its development, the golden age of Silla pottery cours the period of 200s A.D. and most dominant period was about 400s A.D. From about 5th, 6th C.A.D. hieroglyphic pottery began to be appeared, which was not produced for a daily use but for burial with a dead body. And this distinctive vessels characteristics generally world-Mide vessels for religions and memorial rites initiated with clay dolls from Han dynosty in China. Among these kinds of hieroylyphic pottery there are clay figurines, clay dolls, and hieroglyphic clay wares which have trours formed from generaluse vessels. Clay doll took the form of human features and the shapes of animals, they had made not for practical use but merely to place its aim on a formal aspect, It is evident that this is something to do with primitive belief of ""immortal soul"" in those days and those clay wares took the place of funeral victims, otherwise they wuld have burried with the wife and the servants of the dead who are still living. The aim of making hieroghyphic pottery is not only for the description of its form and pattern butproduced for a practical use at the same time. But in my judge make it clear that they did not actually used them for decoration as fine vessels. Their thoes are classified into such as the shape of animals, plant and hieroglyphic wares. The form of these hieroglyphic pottery shows rather a realistic mothod of expression than an excellance of technique. And these hieroglyphic potterice are mainly appeared around the down stream area of Nak Dong-River which had been Silla and Kaya territory at those time. The inner side of those pottery shapes kept empty for the practical use and the fact that it is mounted on a tall conecal foot (stand) which have a few transparent holes make it distinctive form any other foreign made hieroglyphic pottery. The clay pottery in the shape of 'a warrior on horse back' produced to express themselves an origin of Totemism and clay doll in an idealistic form, this does not mean more sacrifice in rites but a Symbol of a memorial tublet on horseback as a sacrifice. Clay pottery in 'turtle shape' made an a symbol of patron god to signify an oriental philosophy which had rooted and developed from Korea peninsula distributing as 'turtle belief' whose main idea is for peaple to crave a dead body to reain-carnate completly in the otherside of mundave. Glay pottery in the form of 'grey duck' made to use as sacred vessels and stood for sacred image of god to signify a kind of puntheism respecting on bird, and it is with a sense of subtle feeling. This is a kind of sacred vessels appeared. only in Young Nan district which signifies an idea of a custom sending dead-body on a birds wing in funeral procession? I suppose this quser custom have originaled from an idea of a dead-body, And there is a klnd of clay pottery which had taken some ideas from plant sculpture tn clay such as 'peach shaped cup', Beside the above mentioned hieroglyphic clay potteries, there is also a 'cup in the form of a house' which supposedly have produced for the burial with a dead body in order to satisfy Its soul of the pottery's owner to be comforted as he used to be and to supplicate his soul. Potteries in the form of 'cups with wheels' and 'vessel of bout shape', mounted on a tall conical foot, is not for practical use but for rites, which bear some incantatory elements and they reveals 'the idea of gods in heaven' that might have prevalented in that period. Along with the above forms there are potteries tn shape of 'solar wheel' 'solar ship', shoes shaped and bellshaped potteries. The present excavation of these abundant historic remains we greatly to the peculiar of tombs in that peziod, which are deviced such as 'a wooden cosket on ground stone', this rarely mude it possible to interlude inside of tomb or to excavate them jlligally. I could smell an artistic characteristics of the Silla period pottery by appreciating of theits aesthetic value of these sundry hieroglyphic potteries which had not been for everyday use but contributed as a decoration. Anato-micallt speaking those hiero glyphic pottery is not a well drawn portrait of that epoch, bit still the Silla people had repre-sented their artistic will as to show their humorous side and naturalistic trend in the tradition of their time. They had somepowerful spirit of expressing things as they really are; the affection of Silla people derived from their inner heart, which is Silla's characteristic. This can be easily distinguished from the other period of cultural history. Though rusty in their expression of folklore-art, the simple and honest feeling that Silla's people engraved in pottery can be called a beauty which is embedded in the inner heart of the Korean people. Such inherited beauty has produced the pottery of Koryo and Lee dynasty.;土器는 定着生活을 시작하던 歷史이전부터 사용되어 왔다. 新羅土器는 西曆基源 전후에 발생된 것으로 보여지며 大陸에서 移入되어 온 土器의 영향을 받아 韓半島 石器時代의 土器와 용합하면서 獨創性을 가지고 발달되었다. 신라 土器의 시초라고 할 수 있는 것은 嶺南지방과 南海岸일대에서 발달한 金海土器이다. 新羅土器는 이 金海土器를 母體로 하여 그 基本形을 이루었으며 登窯에서 還元鹽으로 燒成된 灰靑色 硬質土器이다. 이렇게 出現된 新羅土器가 가장 완숙되었던 시기는 서기 400年代이다. 本 論文은 新羅土器중에서 5~6世紀에 성행하였던 象形土器의 形態에 대해서 살펴본 것이다. 지금까지 土器의 紋樣에 대한 硏究는 활발히 行해 졌으나 形態에 대해서는 극히 斷片的으로 다루어졌을 뿐이다. 특히 象形土器는 그 形態나 用途에 있어서 一般的인 土器와는 다른 意味가 내포되어 있다. 本 硏究에서는 먼저 土器의 發達過程을 살펴본뒤 象形土器에 중점을 두어 形態別로 分類, 그 造形的인 特徵을 考察하고 동시에 新羅土器의 性格과 그에 따른 意味를 硏究하려 하였다. 象形土器는 日常容器가 아닌 副葬用 明器로 製作된 것인데 中國漢代의 土偶에서 影響을 받은 것으로서 汎世界的인 성격을 띠고 있다. 이는 靈魂不滅說을 믿었던 當時 信仰과 관계가 있고 殉葬 代用品으로 葬送에 使用되어온 것으로 본다. 따라서 象形土器는 形態묘사에만 그 目的이 있는 것이 아니고 容器的인 목적도 겸하면서 意匠을 위한 明器로 만들어지는등 多目的이었던 것으로 추측할 수 있다. 一瞥해보면 그 形態는 動物形, 植物形등과 집, 배등 생활주변에서 흔히 볼 수 있는 것으로 되어있으며 技法의 우수성보다는 表現手法이 매우 寫實的으로 묘사되어 있음을 알 수 있다. 象形土器는 지역적으로는 주로 洛東江 下流지방의 古新羅지역과 伽倻지역에 집중 分布되어 있으며 形態상으로는 외국의 象形土器와의 차이점 이기도 한 高坏의 台와 같은 台脚部가 있고, 內部 中央이 비어있어 容器的인 性格을 나타내고 있다는 共通點이 있다. 象形土器로서 현재 볼 수 있는 것은 동물 崇拝思想에 基因한 馬形土器등과 거북에 의해 만들어진 神龜形土器, 死者의 안식처로 副葬된 象形土器, 天神思想의 太陽車, 太陽船으로 製作된 車形土器와 舟形土器 등이다. 이 외에도 많은 象形土器들이 있으며 그 表現手法만으로도 新羅土器의 性格을 알 수 있을 정도이다. 비록 新羅土器가 解剖學的으로까지 묘사가 잘 이루어지지 않았다 하더라도 新羅人의 諧謔的인 一面과 新羅人의 傳統的 自然主義 경향을 表現하는데는 부족함이 없다. 素朴하면서도 古代人의 感情이 넘쳐흐르는 강한 精神的 偉力은 언제 어디서나 쉽게 구별할 수 있는 新羅 특유의 獨創性이라 하겠다. 이러한 新羅人의 감정은 高麗, 朝鮮에로 傳承 발전되어 나타나 우리의 內面에 스며있는 韓國 傳統美의 根源이 된다고 할 수 있다.
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