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조선궁중정재에 관한 연구

Title
조선궁중정재에 관한 연구
Authors
한옥희
Issue Date
1973
Department/Major
교육대학원 체육교육전공
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
本考는 朝鮮時代 官中에서 設行되었던 唐樂呈才와 鄕樂呈才의 槪念을 보다 더 뚜렷하게 밝히고자 하는데에 目的이 있다. 그리하여 朝鮮 500年을 年代別로 槪觀하여 총 50여개의 宮中呈才가 創製 혹은 變化되어 가는 過程을 살핀 다음, 宮中呈才가 繁盛했던 때에 병존한 모든 呈才를 分析하여 각 構成要素의 時間的 변례를 살펴 보았다. 宮中呈才의 創製와 消滅 및 變化를 基準으로 하면 朝鮮 全朝를 크게 4期로 나누어 볼 수 있다. 太祖朝부터 成宗朝에 이르는 동안에, 새로운 呈才가 많이 創製되었고 呈才舞童이라는 새로운 樂職이 마련되어 外宴은 舞童이, 內宴은 女伶이 맡게 되었으며, 또한 당시의 音律과 歌舞 및 그에 隨伴되는 각종의 樂的資料를 集大成한 악학규범이 편찬되므로서 後人의 指標가 되었다. 당시의 宮中呈才는 唐樂呈才와 鄕樂呈才로 區分되어 있고, 鄕·唐樂呈才는 대체로 相反된 特徵을 지니고 있다. 燕山朝부터 仁祖朝에 이르는 동안에 呈才는 거의 衰頹되었다. 즉 燕山의 暴政과 宣祖朝의 壬辰·丁酉에 발생한 倭亂으로 樂政이 斷切되었고, 다시 仁祖朝에 일어난 丁卯·丙子의 胡亂을 거치는 동안에 傳來하던 呈才들이 거의 消滅되었을 뿐만 아니라 呈才의 創製 活動도 전혀 없었다. 孝宗朝부터 正祖朝까지는 亂前의 音律 및 歌舞를 되찾기 위해 새로운 樂政이 전개되었다. 한편 孝宗朝에 制定된 用樂節次에 있어서 鄕·唐樂呈才의 區分에 의한 按排가 없어지므로서, 사실상 鄕·唐樂呈才의 槪念이 없어졌다고 볼 수 있다. 純祖朝부터 高宗朝에 이르는 동안은 宮中呈才의 最 隆盛期였다. 純祖末葉에 翼宗이 많은 呈才樂章을 新製하여 20여 개의 呈才가 創製되었다. 당시의 新製呈才에서는 물론 傳來하여 온 呈才의 構成도 變改시킨 결과, 前代의 鄕·唐樂呈才가 각각 지니고 있던 特徵이 混合되어 새로운 樣相의 呈才가 ?頭되었다. 즉 呈才의 構成上 鄕樂呈才와 唐樂呈才의 區別이 없어진 것이다. 憲宗·高宗朝 間에는, 純祖朝에 新製된 呈才와 鮮初의 呈才까지 再演되어서 많은 수의 呈才가 同時代에 ?設되었다. 本考를 통하여 살펴 본 결과, 鄕樂呈才나 唐樂呈才란 朝鮮 前半期에 사용된 用語에 지나지 않으므로 朝鮮 全朝의 모든 呈才를 鄕·唐樂呈才로 區分할 수는 없다고 생각한다.;The purpose of this study is to clarify the concept of Dang-ak Jung-jae and Hyang-ak Jung-jae which were performed at the court in the Yi Dynasty. After reviewing the process of creation or change of more than 50 court jung-jaes (dances performed at banquets in the court) historically, the emphasis was made on the change of respective composition factor by analyzing all jung-jaes which coexisted at same period. Judging by the standard of creation, disappearance and change of the court jung-jae, the Yi Dynasty can be divided into 4 periods. Many of jung-jaes had been created during the period of Kings Tae-jo and Sung-jong and a new occupation of the dancer, called jung-jae moo-dong (dancing boy) was established. The moo-dong danced for woi-yon (the banquet for the King and noblemen) and the yo-ryong (dancing and singing girls) danced for nae-yon (the banquet for the queen and noblewomen). Also Ak-hak Kue-bum, in which rhythm, singing, dancing and various musical data in those days was compiled and if became invaluable reference for the future days. The court jung-jae was divided into Dang-ak jung-jae and Hyang-ak jung-jae, and they had different characteristics. During the period of the reign of king Yon-san to the reign of king In-jo, the jung-jae was almost stopped due to the tyranny of King Yon-san and the invasion of Japan. The conventional jung-jae came to a complete stop during the period of the Ho-rhan war which was caused by the Chinese invasion. During the period of the reign of King Hyo-jong to the reign of King Jung-jo, the new government policy for music had been developed to restore the rhythms and dances performed before the war. In the meantime an arrangement for classification of Hyang-ak and Dang-ak jung-jae had disappeared in the reign of King Hyo-jong because the concept of Hyang-ak jung-jae or Dang-ak jung-jae had become obsolete. The period of King Soon-jo's reign to Emperor Ko-jong's reign was the most flourishing period for court jung-jae. At the end of King Soon-jo's reign, King Ik-jong had composed the Jung-jae Ak-jang (poem and sentences used for the jungjae) and more than 20 jung-jaes were created. In the newly composed jung-jae, the respective characteristics of the former Hyang-ak and Dang-ak jung-jae were mixed and the new type of jung-jae was created as a revision of the conventional jung-jae. There was no distinction between Hyang-ak jung-jae and Dang-ak jung-jae, in composition of the jung-jae. Jung-jae in King Soon-jo's reign were performed with the conventional jung-jae at the same time during king Heon-jong's reign to King ko-jong's period. As a result of this study it an be concluded that all jung-jaes of the entire Yi Dynasty can hardly be divided into HYang-ak jung-jae and Dang-ak jung-jae since both terms were used only during the former half of the Yi Dynasty
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