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청소년의 간식 섭취 실태에 관한 연구

Title
청소년의 간식 섭취 실태에 관한 연구
Other Titles
A Study on Adolescents' Between Meals Consumption : Based on Middle School Students in Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do
Authors
서지영
Issue Date
2008
Department/Major
교육대학원 가정과교육전공
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to provide a basic material for the instruction of between meals consumption that helps adolescents to develop appropriate between meals consumption habits by analyzing the factors that affected their between meals consumption. In the study, a survey involving 607 middle school students in Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do was conducted to examine their general features, between meals consumption, and dietary attitudes. After that, gender, BMI, dietary attitudes, whether or not mother has a job, household income, and parents' education level were defined as the factors that affects adolescents' between meals consumption and, on the basis of this, the effect of each of the factors on adolescents' between meals consumption was analyzed. Frequency analysis, cross analysis, variance analysis and correlation analysis were performed on the collected data using SPSS program (Ver. 15.0). The following results were obtained in the study. As for the subjects' physical features, senior year students were taller and heavier than junior year students. Overall, BMI of male students was higher than that of female students. With regard to the education level of the subjects' parents, the highest number of the students replied "university graduate." As for the occupation of the subjects' fathers, office worker ranked first, followed by professional. As for the occupation of the subjects' mothers, house wife took first place, followed by office worker. With regard to the monthly household income, the highest proportion of the subjects replied " four million won or more." The analysis of adolescents' between meals consumption was performed. With regard to the frequency of between meals consumption, the way of preparing between meals, and places they purchase between meals, the highest number of the respondents replied "once a day", "purchasing prepared between meals", and "supermarket" respectively. As to the questions of the average daily cost of between meals and preference for between meals, the highest proportion of the respondents said "1000 won" and "sweets and snacks" respectively. As to all of the question items related to between meals purchasing attitudes, the highest number of the respondents replied "not at all." With regard to the frequency of between meals consumption by food group, ‘once or twice a week’ ranked first in all food groups. With respect to preference for between meals by gender, female students preferred sweets and biscuits while male students preferred "bread and cake." In addition, male students consumed noodles significantly more frequently than female students while female students ate candies and chocolates significantly more frequently than their male counterparts. As for the frequency of between meals consumption according to BMI, students in the low weight group consumed significantly more biscuits, candies, and chocolates than other weight groups. Students in low weight group spent more money on between meals. In the meantime, students in the overweight group received higher scores for between meals consumption attitudes. Lots of students in the group who received higher scores for dietary attitudes consumed between meals prepared by parents. Higher proportion of students in the group with higher scores for dietary attitudes ate fruits, fruit juice, milk and yogurt. Dietary attitudes had a negative relationship with the average daily cost of between meals while it had a positive relationship with between meals consumption attitudes. The students whose mothers had a job consumed purchased between meals more than the students whose mothers were housewives. The students' mothers with no job involved in children's between meals consumption than working mothers. In addition, higher proportion of students whose mothers were housewives consumed fruits, fruit juice, milk and yogurt. Higher proportion of households with high income consumed between meals once or more a day. As for places they purchase between meals, higher number of the respondents said "fast food store." With regard to frequency of between meals consumption, the group with high income consumed fast food significantly more frequently than other food. The subjects whose fathers' education level was high consumed between meals more frequently and ate fast food and soft drinks more often. In the meantime, the subjects whose parents all had received high education gained higher scores for between meals consumption attitudes and dietary attitudes. In conclusion, this study found that gender, BMI, dietary attitudes, whether or not mother has a job, household income, and parents' education level affect adolescents' between meals consumption. The instruction aimed at developing appropriate between meals consumption habits needs to focus on female students and students with low weight. In addition, between meals consumption based on a plan, the development of materials for parent education, and improvement of dietary habits should be applied to dietary life and nutrition education for adolescents.;본 연구의 목적은 청소년의 간식 섭취에 영향을 미치는 요인들을 분석하여 올바른 간식 습관을 가지도록 간식 섭취 지도 및 교육에 기초 자료를 제공하고자 한다. 본 연구를 위해서 경기 고양시 지역의 중학생 607명을 대상으로 일반사항, 간식 섭취 실태, 식습관 태도에 대해서 설문조사 실시한 후 간식 섭취에 영향을 주는 요인으로 성별, BMI, 식습관 태도, 어머니 직업 유무, 가계 소득 정도, 부모 교육 정도 등을 규정하여 각 요인들이 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 분석은 SPSS 프로그램(Ver. 15.0)을 이용한 빈도분석, 교차분석, 분산분석, 상관관계분석을 실시하였다. 본 연구 결과는 다음과 같다. 조사대상자의 신체특성은 학년은 올라가면서 신장과 체중이 증가하였고 전제적으로 여학생보다는 남학생이 BMI가 높았다. 조사대상자의 부모 교육정도는 대학교 졸업이 가장 많았으며 부모의 직업에서 아버지는 사무직, 전문직 순으로 많았고, 어머니는 가정주부, 사무직 순으로 많았다. 가정의 한 달 총수입은 400만원 이상이 가장 높은 비율이었다. 간식 섭취 실태 분석에서 간식섭취횟수는 ‘하루에 1번’, 간식준비방법은 ‘직접 사먹는다’, 간식 구입 장소는 ‘슈퍼마켓’, 일일 평균 간식비는 ‘1000원’군, 간식의 선호도는 ‘과자류 및 스낵류’, 간식 구입 태도는 모든 문항에서 ‘전혀 그렇지 않다’, 간식 식품별 섭취 빈도는 모든 식품군에서 ‘일주일에 1~2회 섭취’가 가장 높은 비율을 나타내었다. 성별에 따른 간식의 선호도는 여학생은 과자류에서 높은 비율이고, 남학생은 ‘빵류 및 케잌류' 등에서 더 높은 비율로 나타났다. 간식 섭취 빈도는 면류(남>여)와 사탕?초콜릿류(남<여)에서 가장 유의미한 차이를 보였다. BMI에 따른 간식 섭취 빈도는 저체중군에서 과자류와 사탕?초콜릿류를 다른 군보다 유의적으로 더 많이 섭취하는 것으로 나타났다. 저체중군에서 일일 평균 간식비가 높게 나왔고, 과체중군에서 간식 소비 태도 점수가 높게 나타났다. 식습관 태도에 있어서 점수가 높은 군에서 부모님이 간식을 준비해주는 비율이 높았고 간식 섭취 빈도는 식습관 태도 점수가 높은 군에서 과일·과일주스류와 우유·요구르트류 섭취 비율이 높았다. 식습관 태도는 일일 평균 간식비와 부적 상관관계, 간식 소비 태도와는 정적 상관관계를 가졌다. 어머니의 직업이 있을 경우 직접 사먹는 비율이 높았고, 직업이 없을 경우 부모 관여 하의 간식 섭취 비율이 높았으며, 과일·과일주스류와 우유·요구르트류의 섭취 빈도가 높게 나타났다.(p<0.05, p<0.001). 가계의 소득 정도가 높은 군에서 하루 1번 이상 간식 섭취의 비율이 높았으며, 간식 구입 장소로 패스트푸드점의 비율이 높았고 간식 섭취 빈도에서도 패스트푸드류는 고소득군의 섭취 빈도가 유의적으로 높았다. 부의 교육정도가 높은 군에서 간식 섭취 횟수가 많았고, 패스트푸드와 청량음료의 섭취 빈도가 높은 반면, 부모 모두 학력이 높은 군에서 간식 소비 태도와 식습관 태도의 점수가 높은 것을 볼 수 있었다. 이와 같이 성별, BMI, 식습관 태도, 어머니 직업 유무, 가계 소득 정도, 부모 교육 정도 등의 요인에 의해 간식 섭취에 영향을 미치고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 올바른 간식 습관을 형성하기 위한 지도와 교육에서 여학생 또는 저체중군의 학생에게 좀 더 초점을 맞추고 계획적인 간식 섭취, 부모 교육 자료의 개발, 식습관의 개선 사항 등을 청소년 식생활 및 영양 교육에 적용해야 하겠다.
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