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- 韓國巫俗服飾 硏究
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- 교육대학원 가정과교육전공
- 한국무속복식; 가정학; 황해도무당
- 이화여자대학교 대학원
- A. CHUN Dae Joo's convention of witchery was a traditional Korean convention of witchery which was inherited from the beginning of our history.
1. It is supposed that our country's tradition if witchery was under the influence of North Siberia, since our country is within the sphere of Shamanism and it has been transfermed combining with Buddhism, Confucianism and other various sect, having its origin in myth of "Dan Gun" and inherited without loss of original nature.
Even the national policy of culture and institution couldn't prevent from favoring witchery among the people. And this witchery still exists contractedly adhering closely to citizen's life as Korean Shamanism.
2. It is a natural civilian religion based on Animism and multiple-souls and Gods. There is a chief God, since there's no evident correlational consolidated unity or rank-composing, and each God exists individualy, and their costumes were different by rank.
The "Kut"(Mu-Jae) is a religious ceremony of "Ga-mu"(song and dance) for the gathered above-said divine spirits, and it is same as CHUN, Dae Joo.
3. The "Kut" was standardized with the "Yul-du-gu-ri"(Ceremony of twelve street) from the Korea Dynasty with the temper of incantation chantting Kang-sin (God from heaven) witchery convention but at the beginning, the king was a witch by the theocracy system and from "Nam-hae-cha-cha-ung" Sin-ra Dynasity, A-ro(King's sister) presided over the ceremony and was separated and after that the witch exists individualy.
4. The types of "Kut" are;
North of Han-river and South of it types and East-coast, Jae-joo Island types and CHUN Dae Joo belongs to North of Han river type. Each of the Yul-du-geu-ri has their own God's costume dissimilarly.
B. The costumes of Korean witchery tradition are;
Each "Yul-du-gu-ri" wears descended God's costume for both incantation chantting for the reducing into God and performance.
1. Costume of "Jae-suk-sin" is white "Ko-gal", "Jang-sam" and "Ga-sa".
2. Costume of the highest rank was not superior than the official costume rank of "Mu-kwan (military official)-dang-sang" of Cho-sun Dynasity, and wears Hong-chun-ik and Nam-chun-ik and put the "Ho-su-lip" on head.
3. Wore "Gu-gun-bok" of Cho-sun Dynasity, Bung-geu-jee, Dong-da-ri, Kie-ja and banded Jun-dae.
4. Wore "Myun-sa-po" to manifest eruption because they feared the God of smallpox, since was in the uncivilized state medically.
5. As the highest rank costume of "Yeu-sin"(Goddess) wore "Wan-sam" and it was not superior than the rank of Imperial Court Costume and it was imitational.
C. CHUN, Dae Joo's costumes of witchery tradition seemed to be inherited from about 100 years ago and found out the difference with the general witchery tradition of the end of Lee Dynasity.
1. The costumes of CHUN Dae Joo were the highest rank civil official's costume of Cho-sun Dynasity. "Dang-sang-kwan-bok" is red colored official uniform and "Dong-ha-kwan-bok" is blue or green colored official uniform. On head "Sa-mo" must be put, so "Got-gat" which was witch's costume was used and not "Gak-dae" but Jun-dae was used as a belt. At the Hyung-be of costume ought to be embroidered with cloud and crane up and down but it is differently embroidered right and left.
The so called official uniform was not "Dan-ryung" and different in composing and ceremonial uniform of courtier was changed to "Heuk-dan-ryung" after "Gap-o-kyung-jang" (A.D. 1894) and it suggests that CHUN Dae Joo's official uniform was a inherited one before the Gap-o-kyung-jang.
"Materials of investigation on the scene" in A.D. 1900 and other references in A.D. 1800 manifest that Chun-ik and Ho-su-lip were used as a milatary officer's uniform and it was the evident difference among them.
2. Even the costume of "Jae-suk" was influenced by the foreign religion to be Buddhism type. Different from actual object of Buddhist uniform, the white colored "Got-gal" and white colored Jang-sam was used and embroidered luxuriously and was decorative. It proves that the witchery has not lost its nature through combining course with Buddhism.
3. The "Gu-gun-bok" in "Witchery's Record", "Witchery's Tradition of Imperial Court" "Witchery in Yang-ju" and "Materials of investigation on the scene" in A.D. 1900 was similar with the actual object but CHUN Dae Joo's Gu-gun-bok was different from it.
All the "Dong-da-ri" was "Ka-chi-dong"(colored patches) and at the combat uniform the "Sang-git" (double feather) and Dong-jeung (patch) was tied. There's not used "Jun-dae"(combat belt) but "Jun-rip".
4. For the comstumes of "Dae-gam-geu-ri", the "Joo-eye" and "Tap-ho", "Sa dae" and "Heuk-rip" were used. And it is supposed that the CHUN Dae Joo's costumes was same with the costume system in the end of Cho-sun Dynasty (after A.D. 1895).
5. For the supreme costumes of witch, "Won-sam" and "Jock-duri" were used but it was different apparently with the Cho-sun Dynasty. "Sang-git" and "Sang-go-reum" was tied, at the green "Kil", a peony was embroidered, and at the chest, the phoenix and at the back, the couple-crane was embroidered and used colored patches and "Han-sam". At the "Kit" and "Go-rom" gilded the flowershape, and tied "Mu" and made lines around it. And there was no difference from "Ap-kil" and "Deut-kil." There all were only imitated but not characteristic.
6. For the costumes of "Jang-gun-geu-ri" that cherish the "Young-woong-jung-gun'" (heroic general) who died miserably in combat, "Jang-gun-pal-bae'" and "Tu-gae" were used and again used the armor and helmet for the uniform of "Ho-guk-jang-gun". Ant it was costumed supremely by rank than the uniform for the general of our country. It seemed that the reason was the hereditory customes of China-cherishing thought in "Cho-sun" era.
7. The God's shape was conformed to men's shape and in case of making male-Cod's costume, it was based on female costume (Chi-ma & Cheu-go-ri). It is reasonable since the witch is female but it was interesting that the costumes for male-witch was based on female costume. There is a kind of opinions that it was a primeval type of Jie-mo-sin worship which was an object God for the celebration of a good harvest. So we can imagine that conception of female-God predominated over male-God conception.
8. Since the God's highest degree costume which men can wear by the conception that God's shape was conformed to men's shape, drawn on the picture of Witchery-God(Mu-sin-do), it was supposed that the costume of witch would be same in style with that drawn on the picture of Witchery-God but there were difference between them.
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