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父母의 態度와 道德的判斷能力에 關한 硏究

Title
父母의 態度와 道德的判斷能力에 關한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE MORAL JUDGEMENT POWER AND PARENTAL ATTITUDE
Authors
朴美子
Issue Date
1978
Department/Major
교육대학원 가정과교육전공
Keywords
부모태도도덕적판단능력
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
本 硏究는 靑少年의 道德性 發達의 變因으로써 子女가 知覺한 父母의 態度와 靑少年의 道德的 判斷能力과의 關係를 보다 具體的으로 分析 究明함으로써 家庭에서의 子女 指導方案을 바람직하게 摸索하는데 보탬이 되고자 試圖한 것이다. 이러한 目的을 達成하기 爲하여 本 硏究에서 究明하고자 하는 問題는 具體的으로 다음과 같다. 1. 靑少年의 道德的 判斷能力은 子女가 知覺한 父母의 態度와 相關關係가 있는가? 2. 道德性 發達을 助長하고 沮害하는 父母의 態度는 무엇인가? 3. 靑少年의 道德的 判斷能力과 父母의 態度變因은 性別, 年齡에 따라 相關關係에 差異가 있는가? 4. 靑少年의 道德的 判斷能力은 知能과 相關關係가 있는가? 5. 靑少年의 道德的 判斷能力은 家族의 構造, 敎育, 宗敎, 社會 經濟的 地位와 相關關係가 있는가? 6. 道德性의 發達段階는 中學生, 高等學生에 따라 變化하고 있는가? 7. 靑少年의 道德的 判斷能力은 男女에 따라 差異가 있는가? 이를 解決하기 爲한 硏究方法으로 男女 中·高等學校 1學年에서 1학급씩 無選標集하여 260名을 硏究對象者로 選定하여 Kohlberg(1964)의 認知發達理論에 依한 道德的 判斷能力 檢査를 먼저 實施하였다. 被驗者들의 道德的 判斷能力은 Kohlberg의 두가지 Dilemma 이야기(道德的 行爲의 動機, 人間生命의 價値)를 質問紙法으로 陳述하게 하여 道德性 發達水準을 測定하는 것으로 代置하였다. 測定의 基準은 Kohlberg의 6가지 道德性 發達段階였으며 道德性 發達點數는 한 對象이 두 이야기에서 얻은 發達段階點數를 不均하여 계산하였다. 父母의 態度調査는 道德性 發達水準에 가장 많은 影響을 주리라고 假定하는 父母의 態度 3가지 變因(民主-專制, 受容-拒否, 一貫-모순不一致)을 假定하여 質問紙法을 通하여 3段階 評定尺度로 測定하였다. 또한 家族의 構造狀況과 敎育, 宗敎, 社會 經濟的 背景도 調査하였다. 知能檢査는 學校에서 이미 實施한 標準化 檢査의 結果를 活用하였다. 本 硏究의 假說을 檢證하기 爲하여 Karl Pearson의 積率 相關係數(r), Fisher의 七檢證을 Karl Pearson의 X² 分析을 하였다. 本 硏究의 結果로 밝혀진 內容은 다음과 같다. 1. 被驗者들의 道德性 發達의 不均水準은 Kohlberg의 6段階 가운데 中學校는 2-4段階에 高等學校는 3~5段階에 分布되였으며 그 平均水準은 中學校는 3.1(M=3.1)段階, 高等學校는 4(M=4)段階로서 高等學校가 한 段階 높게 나타났으며 이러한 結果는 先行硏究 結果와 어느 정도 一致하는 傾向을 보이고 있다. 따라서 道德性 發達段階는 中學生, 高等學生에 따라 變化하고 있음이 確認되었다. 또 判斷能力에 있어서 男女의 差는 中學生의 境遇 女子가 判斷平均에서 男子보다 약간 높고 中學生에서는 이와 反對現象이 나타났는데 意義있는 相關이 없음이 밝혀졌다. 2. 靑少年의 道德的 判斷能力과 父母의 肯定的 態度와는 正的相關이 있는 것으로 밝혀졌다. 卽 民主 r=.43, 受容 r=.52, 一貫 r=.25의 相關關係가 있으며 P<. 이 以上의 意義度를 나타냈다. 特히 受容的 態度가 靑少年들에게 가장 道德性 發達을 助長 시켜주는데 有意한 相關이 있음이 밝혀졌다. 3. 父母의 態度變因과의 相關關係에서 中學生이 高校生보다 女學生이 男學生보다 道德性 發達에 父母의 影響이 큰 것으로 나타냈다. 特히 受容的 態度가 靑少年들에게 가장 道德性 發達을 助長 시켜주는데 有意한 相關이 있음이 밝혀졌다. 3. 父母의 態度變因과의 相關關係에서 中學生이 高校生보다 女學生이 男學生보다 道德性 發達에 父母의 影響이 큰 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 中學生은 民主的인 父母의 態度에 高等學生은 受容的인 父母의 態度에서 道德性 發達의 影響을 많이 받은 것으로 밝혀졌고 態度의 一貫性에는 性別에는 差異가 없으나 中學生, 高等學生에 따라 差異가 있음이 밝혀졌다. 4. 家庭의 構造狀況에서 父母의 生存與否, 祖父母의 同居與否 關係는 意義 있는 相關이 없음이 밝혀졌다. 5. 道德性 發達과 母의 學歷과는 별로 意義있는 相關이 없었으나 父의 學歷과는 P〈.01 水準에서 意義있는 相關을 보였다. 卽 靑少年에게는 母보다는 父의 學歷이 道德性 發達에 影響이 크다는 것이 밝혀졌다. 6. 宗敎, 父母의 職業關係에서는 意義있는 相關이 없고 家庭의 經濟的인 關係는 .05〈P〈.01 水準에서 意義있는 相關이 있음이 밝혀졌다. 7. 靑少年의 道德性 判段能力과 知能과의 相關 r=.42로서 P〈.01 水準에서 意義있는 相關이 있음이 밝혀졌다. 以上의 結果를 綜合하여 보면 道德性의 認知的 判斷能力과 父母의 態度와는 正的相關이 있음으로 父母의 態度가 民主的이고, 受容的 및 一貫性을 가져올때 靑少年의 道德性이 發達된다는 結論을 再確認했다. 또 年齡이 增加함에 따라 父母의 權威的인 態度보다는 情緖的인 態度에서 影響을 많이 받고 男學生보다는 女學生이 더 情緖的인 態度에 影響을 많이 받고 있다는 것이 나타났다. Hoffman(1970)과 그밖의 몇몇 학자들의 硏究에서는 道德的 判斷能力과 社會 經濟的인 地位와 關聯이 있는 것으로 指摘되었다. 本 硏究에서도 家庭의 經濟的인 狀態, 父의 學歷과는 意義있는 相關이 있는 것으로 確認 되므로써 先行硏究와의 一致點을 發見할 수 있었다. 그러나 家族의 構造狀況, 父母의 職業, 母의 學歷, 家庭의 宗敎와는 意義있는 相關이 없게 나타난 것은 標集에 制限點이 있을 것으로 看做된다. 農村地域에 根接한 邑單位 地域은 그 家庭의 敎育, 社會 經濟的 背景이 뚜렷한 區別이 없고 거의 비슷한 階層이기 때문에 變因에 따라 相關關係에 差異가 있다. 그러나 本 硏究에 있어서 靑少年의 道德性 發達은 父母의 子女에 對한 態度에 影響을 받는다는 것을 確認함으로 家庭에서의 子女에 對한 態度 및 指導의 方向設定에 對한 一聯의 도움이 된다는 點에서 實際的 意義를 가진다.;The Purpose and Plan The purpose of this study, broadly stated, is to contribute to an understanding of the relationships between the moral development and parental attitude in child rearing. today, one of the ideal goal of Korean Education is to help adolescent develop their morality to their fullest. Especially since 1960, because of the rapid technological and economical development, the development of mass media, urbanization and the change of the structure and function of family, effective methods of moral education has been of great concern to this country, This study is designed to figure out the following six point; (1) to compare the level of moral judgement power of adolescent with the difference of parental attitude in child rearing. (2) To search for the variables which accelerate moral development of adolescents and which hamper to develop them. (3) to look into the correlation between the level of moral judgement and intelligence development. (4) to examin the effects of social background of family to the moral development, such as the level education of parents, structure of family and religion, social-economic status of family (5) to figure out the developmental tendency of morality in adolescents (6) to search the sex difference in moral development. The Design of the Study The sample under the study consisted of two classes in 1st year of middle school and high school and another two classes in girls middle school and girls high school, using the stratified random sampling method. Of the original sample of 244, two or three case were discarded because of error in data. The instrument used in this study to measure the parental attitudes is an inventory devised and scaled by the researcher covering three areas of parents-child relationships. (democratic-authoritarian, acceptance-negative, consistancy- inconsistancy) In measuring the level of development of moral judgement the test of moral judgement devised by Kohlberg (1964) was adopted. The statistical analysis of the resulting deta included percentage, the researcher calculated correlation coefficient (r) between the variables, and T-Lest and X²test to test their significance. Results 1. Moral development of adolescent measures of moral development were obtained from the Kohlberg's two dilema stories (the motivation of the moral behavior, and judgement of the worthiness of live) the average level of moral judgement of the middle school was 3.1 and 4 in high school with the range of 2 to 4 stage of Kohlberg's six stage scales the moral development for three years in adolescent revealed in creasment of 6 stage is Kohlberg test as predicted. This findings are accordance with previous investigations. Regardless of age, sex difference is apparent in moral development. Girls moral developments are higher than boys in middle school and opposite phenemenon showed in high school. Parental attitudes and moral development. According to the results of the relationship between parental attitudes and level of moral development, support the First Hypothesis. Democratic, acceptive, consistant attitude of parents help the moral development of adolescent and authoritarian, negative and inconsistant attitude hinder the moral development. According to product-moment correlation coefficient, generally moral development of adolescent's were influenced by democratic (r=. 43), acceptive (r=. 52) and consistant (r=. 25) attitudes of parents. However, T-test which examine the significance of correlation negative attitudes of parents are most significantly impede the development. (p<. 01). 2. Sex differences are shown in relation to perception of parental attitudes and it's relation to moral development. Girls tend to be affected easily by the parental attitudes in moral development than is true in boys, Similarly the perception of parental attitude and parental influences are changed with age. Middle school pupils are more sensitive with the democratic-authoritarian attitude of child rearing practice, at the other hand, high school pupils are strongly influenced by acceptant-negative attitude of parents. 3. The influence of home environment Of the matters just mentioned above, the parental attitude in child rearing practice influence the moral development of child. They are also affected by home background such as parental education, and social economic status of home. Differences in family structure and religion have not played a prominant part in moral development of adolescents. In comparision of differences in family income tend to positively correlate with moral judgement power as much as father's education level. One might guess the kinds of religious pursuit of an individual does affect the moral judgement, but it was not supported in this study. Probably the religious atmosphere of home does influence the moral development, not the kind of religious. 4. The Relation with Intelligence Some theorie of cognitive development, such as that of Jean Piaget and Kohlberg, intelligence developmental patterns are major determiner of what can be learned and what is learned in the process of moral behavior. These view point are supported in this study. The intelligence level measured by standardized test is highly correlated with moral judgement power as we expected. Obviously the Intelligence Quotation could be a criteriain moral judgement. For further study Study on the moral education has already received considerable attention in education, psychology, sociology. In some of developmental approach in moral education, the home environment especially parents-child relationships have been the focus of development of morality. But there have been difficulties in studying accompanied with the difficulties in finding a valid research instrument and methods. There are some studies on the external factor in the home environment not on the psychological factors of home in the field of Home Economics. In this respect the present study may be regarded as a challenge for the inprovement of research techniques and attitude, such as development of measuring instrument of parental attitudes and moral development. For the explanation and application of this study, limited sampling and research method must be considered. The research should be supplemented by the depth interview technique.
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