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우리나라 婚禮服 變遷에 關한 一硏究

Title
우리나라 婚禮服 變遷에 關한 一硏究
Other Titles
STUDY AS TO THE CHANGES OF WEDDING DRESS IN KOREA
Authors
宋明見.
Issue Date
1974
Department/Major
교육대학원 가정과교육전공
Keywords
우리나라혼례복개화기이후가정과교육
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
우리나라의 婚姻制度를 살펴보면, 上古時代에는 賣買婚, 母權時代의 婚姻法등이 無秩序하게 行해 지다가 高麗末 牧隱과 圃隱이 儒敎哲學인 程朱의 學을 崇尙하고 朱子의 家禮를 輸入하여 實行하므로써 後世人이 이에 따라 施行하였데, 그것은 儀式節次가 너무나 복잡하여 一部人들만이 이에 좇았다. 우리나라 婚禮가 完全 形式에 가까운 形態를 갖추게 된것은 朝鮮王朝 肅宗때 李縡가 四禮便覽을 편찬 해냄으로서 부터라고 할 것이다. 四禮便覽에 依한 婚禮는 議婚, 納采, 納幣, 親迎의 네가지로, 이후 士大夫는 물론, 平民사이에서도 이에 따르고자 노력하였다. 그러나 가난한 집안, 특히 民庶層에서는 福手結婚, 또는 酌水成禮라는 것이 있어, 위의 四禮를 무시하고 簡略하게 치루었다. 그러다가 19세기 중엽 東漸하는 西洋세력에 휩쓸려 우리나라는 이제까지의 政治, 經濟, 社會 全般에 걸쳐서의 中國一邊倒에서 벗어나 開化로의 새로운 變革이 일기 시작하였으니 婚姻制度 역시 개화되어 舊式 혼인 절차는 簡略하여졌고 그러면서 禮拜堂 結婚, 改良結婚式, 佛式化婚法등의 새로운 新式結婚式이 대두되었다. 이 같은 新式結婚은 大多數의 國民들 間에 환영을 받았는데, 이 新式 결혼식도 社會가 安定되면서 當初의 뜻과는 달리 그 節次가 복잡해지고 화려해져서 이에따른 폐단이 또한 적지 않아 社會的 問題로까지 등장하게 되었다. 그래서 이같은 폐단을 없애기 위하여 1973년6월1일을 기해서 가정의레 준칙이 발표되었고 결혼식은 어느 경우이건 간소화되어 오늘에 이르렀다. 이러한 결혼식의 변천과 더불어 婚禮服 또한 新郎에 있어서는 紗帽 團領에서 洋服으로, 新婦에 있어서는 翼衣, 圓衫, 활옷, 唐衣, 족두리, 花冠에서 Wedding Dress에 Veil로 바뀌어 갔는데 특히 女服에 있어서의 변천과정을 보면 다음과 같다. 在來의 婚禮服 制度는 中國의 禮服을 본따 통일신라이후 고려를 거쳐 朝鮮王朝에까지 착용하던 袍衫이었는데, 빈한한 民庶層에서는 國俗인 綠衣紅裳으로 대신하기도 하였다. 그러다가 開化期似後 禮拜堂 結婚, 改良結婚등의 신식결혼식이 行해지면서 婚禮服 역시 在來의 禮服을 벗고 새로운 禮服을 입게 되었다. 記錄에 依한 最初의 신식결혼은 1890년 貞洞 교회에서 朴信實과 姜信成의 결혼식인데 이때 禮服만은 古來의 舊式 婚禮服이었다고 한다. 그후 1890년대를 통해 몇몇 쌍이 신식 결혼식을 올렸다는 기록과 함께 신랑은 西洋의 禮服을 갖추어 입었고 신부는 면사포를 썼다고 한다. 그러나 이때 신부가 한복에 Vail만 쓴 것인지 당시 선교사들의 영향을 크게 받고 과감하게 Dress를 着用했었는지 그 자세한 것을 알 수 없는데, 어쨋든 舊式 婚禮服을 着用하지 않은 것만은 확실하다. 1899년 尹高羅가 최초의 양장 美人이었다는 기록으로 보아 이후 양장이 보급되기 시작하였다고 하겠는데, 1910년 한일 합방이 되자 日本에 대한 항거로 다시 한복을 입었고 그것은 많이 개량된 형태였다. 1920년대의 결혼식 광경에 의하면 신부는 흰 한복에 Veil을 着用하고 있다. 이로부터 1955년 중반기까지 신랑의 禮服이 西歐의 禮服인데 反해 신부의 婚禮服은 흰 한복에 Vail차림 그대로였다. 다만 Veil의 型이 약간씩 달라지고 이마 깊숙히 내려쓰던 Veil을 차츰 올려 쓴 것과 初期에는 흰 구두를 신던것과는 달리 차츰 흰 고무신을 같이 신게 된것만이 변화하였다고 할 것이다. 6.25동란을 겪게되고 이로 인해 歐美의 服飾과 접할 기회가 많아지면서 洋裝이 大衆化 되었으며 따라서 戰後의 社會 安定과 더불어 흰 한복 대신 Wedding Dress를 입게 되었다. 이는 1890년, 최초의 신식 결혼식으로부터 1955년대 중반기 이후 Weading Dress로 완전 서구화된 복식을 着用하기까지 70여년에 가까운 세월이 흐른 것을 뜻한다. 以後 Wedding Dress는 一般 洋裝의 Style과 밀접한 관계를 가지면서 변형되었으니, 初期에는 Gather Flare의 치마 폭이 넓고 호화로운 型에서 간단하고 경쾌한 차림의 양장 스타일과 함께 A line, H line등의 Simple한 Dress로 바뀌었다가 다양한 Design의 洋裝처럼, Dress형 역시 多樣하여져 流行에의 追從이 아닌 자기 체형에 맞는 Design의 Dress를 골라 입을수 있게까지 되었다. 이에서 Wedding Dress의 변천 경향은 종래의 무겁고 획일적인 Style에서 경쾌하고 개성적인 Style로 바뀌어 가고 있다. 그리고 조직적이며 바빠진 生活현상 때문인지, 혼례식의 제도나 혼례복까지 실질적이면서 간소화 된 것으로 변천 되어감을 볼 수 있다.;When we look over the marriage system in Korea it hade been disorderly held by depending on sales marriage, the marriage law of mother rights and blood marriage etc. Mokun and Poun, respected the theory of Chungju lived in the end of Korea's days and imported in the family courtesy of Chuja, philosophy of Confucianism, and, perfoomed it for the people. Since it has been performed, people lived in later were enforced to do so, but, some part of people only followed its arrangement, because it was so coplicated as the most of people could not follow. That the marriage in Korea provided a shape near to the complete form is from the time Lee Jae, who lived in the days of the King of Sookjong, end of Lee's Korea, compiled Four Courtesy Manual. The marriage performed by the Four Courtesy Manual is such marriage as provided by four method, reliance, gift, cash and relative. The common people and high class of noble men--been called as Yangban are also endeavoured to follow the said Four Courtesy Manual but, poor people performed the weeding simply by neglecting the siad Courtesy is they performed it by praying luck and just with a bottle of water. In such conditions, by coming in 19 Century, the European forces moved into East and Korea ceseded from the depending on Chinese only in their politic, economy, society and culture, and a new revision had become to be started to modernization. The marriage system also modernized and old type of marriage simplified in its arrangement such as wedding at Church, that revised to a type of wedding by flower in form of Confunicianism etc. has become to be gained powerfull. This kind of new form of marriage were welcomed by the most of people, but, as the society was stabilized, this new form of wedding has become to be complicated in its arrangement and magnificent that caused rather troubles and, it buJcame to be social questions, and, in order to avoid these troubles a Domestic Courtesy Regulations were announced in June 1, 1973, and the weddings in any case, were simplized and it continued up to date. In these wedding changes, bridegroom wear suit instead off old type of hat and cloths and bride wear dress in veil instead of old type of Korean cloths, Particularly, when we look over the changes of bride's wears, it is as follow : The origional wedding dress are from Chinese full dress and it had been continued up to the days, of the King, Lee's through after Korea was unified by Shin-Re. The poor people used to wear in green and red instead of the said full dresses. And, after the wedding modernized, the revised wedding at Church etc were performed and its wedding dresses also ceseded from the origional full dress that made the people to be wearod a new full dress. In accordance with the edit, the first modern new wedding been held is the marriage of Miss. Park Shin Sil and Mr. Kang Sin Song in 1890, which had been held at the.Chung-Dong Church, Seoul, this time the full dress only still was in old form of old days. After these days through 1890, some of a quite few of couples held modern wedding as it is said in edit, that bridegroom weared Western type of full dress but brido still put Myungscpo on head. But, in these days its detail had not been cleared whether bride weared Korean old type of cloths or weared dress that time by the influences from foreign missionary and, still, there is no way to find the exact details. In any way, it is quite sure that never weared old type of wedding dress. With the edit that noted Miss Yoon Ko Raa is the first woman bride who wear Western Dress. Western type of dresses in 1899, its dress was spreaded to common people and, Japanes invaded Korea, Koreans again started to wear Korean old type of dresses in order to resist Japan but, this time, in such conditions, Korean type of dresses were also much revised. For the time the wedding been held in 1920, bride used to wear Korean dress in white with veil on. From this time till middle days of 1955, bridegroom's full dress has benn set up as Western dress but bride's wedding was Korean type of dress in white with veil as it is now. The only thing changed a little bit by and by is the type of veil and put veil up instead of down and, other than putting shoes in white but, by and by, has become to put rubber shoes instead of hill in. Due to the War of June 25, 1950, there were many opportunityies to be in touch with Western dresses and it has become to be weared by the most of people, therewith, bride became to wear Western wedding drass in a circumslance of the social stability after the War that moons some more than Seventy (70) years were passed from the time of 1890, the first new modern wedding held, to the middle days of 1955 and, all the people have become to wear Western type of dress completely. After those days, the wedding dress has been changed and developed in strictly with related with general destern dresses but, at first, with wide Chima of gather flare, it was splendid, simplized and light-heartedness type of dress such as A line and H line etc. It has become to be in many type of pattern and the people could be able to wear dresses by selecting that fit to their body in its designed dress. In this view, the wedding dress was changed into light-heartedness and individual style from the heavy and unchangeable, which is in a sort of system. Maybe because of the. busy life, the marriage system and also wedding dress, too, substancial and, it became to be changed into simpliness.
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