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韓國都市家族變化에 따른 老人問題

Title
韓國都市家族變化에 따른 老人問題
Other Titles
(The) Problems of the Aged in Korea caused by change in its urban families
Authors
尹松子.
Issue Date
1973
Department/Major
교육대학원 가정과교육전공
Keywords
한국도시가족변화노인문제가정과교육
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
老人이 恭敬받아야 한다는 思想은 東西古今을 通해 人間의 숭고한 美德의 하나로 찬미되여 왔다. 그러나 이러한 恩想은 가속적으로 發展 變貌해 가는 現代文明社會에서 다른 여러가지 社會狀況의 變化와 함께 여러 面에서 挑戰을 받고 있다. 사람들의 價値觀과 家族의 機能이 바뀜에 따라 家族構造가 核家族化하며 社會자체가 産業化, 專門化됨에 따라 人口도 都市化되며, 科字文明 發達로 人間의 平均壽命이 연장됨에 따라 高令人口의 人口構造上 比率이 높아짐으로써 老人의 문제는 社會問題로 등장하게 되었다. 최근 우리 나라에서도 급속한 사회 경제적 變化로 社會발전에 걸쳐 많은 體制變化가 이룩되고 있으나 老人問題는 이제 겨우 注目을 받기 始作하여 老人福祉에 대한 관심이 高潮되고 있다. 本 硏究에서는 家族社會學的 立場에서 변모해가는 우리의 現實을 分析 考察하여, 그로부터 老人問題를 해결할 수 있는 方向을 모색해 보고자 努力하였다. 여기서는 주로 文獻硏究에 의한 分析方法을 사용하였으며 다음과 같은 事實을 확인하였다. 1. 人口構造上 老人人口의 比率이 毆美諸國에서와 같이 急增하는 현상은 아니며, 1966년부터 점차 增加趨勢에 있다. 즉 60세이상 老人人口는 1967年의 5.2%에서 1970년에 5.4%로 늘어났으며 앞으로 계속 늘어날 것으로 추산하고 있다. 2. 核家口化 現象이 점차 一般化되고 있어 全國 家口構造上 2世代家口는 늘고 3世代家口는 줄고 있는데 그 경향은 都市社會에서 더욱 현저하다. 3. 經濟構造上 老人은 停年制 등으로 단순한 消費家族으로 남게 되어 家族의 負擔이 되고 있다. 즉 우리나라 高令者 人口의 就業狀態를 보면 1971年 現在 總就業者가 약 971萬人중 60세이상의 高令就業者가 약 51萬人으로서 5.2%를 차지하고 있고, 약 60% 이상의 老人이 子女의 도움으로 生計를 유지하고 있다는 事實이 밝혀진다. 또 産業化과정의 부수현상인 專門化 分業化로 老人의 雇傭機會는 더욱 줄어 들어 無依無托한 老人들은 큰 社會問題를 야기시키고 있다. 4. 老人은 子女들과의 隔離, 配偶者의 死亡으로 인하여 情緖의 不安定, 孤獨感등의 心理的 變化를 일으킨다. 특히 都市化 現象에 서 老人은 環境不適應에 의해 孤獨과 소외를 느낀다. 5. 우리나라에서는 現行法上 철저한 父系家族制度 채택되고 있으며 祖上奉詞의 責任이 男子에게만 지위지고 있다. 그러나 老父母를 長男 또는 아들만이 모실것이 아니라 女子중 어느 누구든지 가장 형편에 맞는 아들이나 딸이 모실 수 있도록 하기 위해서는 父系家族制度에 기반한 親族法이 근본적으로 改政되어야 한다. 6. 家族의 役割構造로서는 子婦와 媤母間의 융통성있는 役割配分이 조성되는 것이 바람직하다. 이상의 事實에서 다음과 같은 老人 問題解決方案이 고려될 수 있을 것으로 思料된다. 첫째, 家族制度 改善에 있어 子女의 性別 次序등을 고려치 않고 形便에 맞는 子女가 老人을 扶養하는 風土가 造成되어야 하겠다. 둘째, 老人에 대한 社會保障이 制度的으로 마련되어야 하며, 先進諸國의 例를 土着化할 수 있는 先行的 硏究가 필요하다. 세째, 老人問題의 해결은 制度的으로 保障된다고 완수될 수 있는 성질은 아니며, 國民의 價値觀 變革이 따라야 할 것으로, 老人은 변화하는 社會를 이해하고 젊은이는 老인을 이해하려는 姿勢를 갖도록 하는 社會敎育 및 啓蒙運動이 전개되어야 할 것이다.;The idea that the old ought to be respected has been praised as one of the lofty virtues throughout the ages, and throughout the East and the West. This idea, however, began to be challanged in many respects in the modern civilized societies which are rapidly changing. Along with the changes in the family value and function, the structure of the family tends to take the form of the nuclear family; along with societies being industrialized and specialized, the general population tends to be concentrated in the urban areas; along with the extension of the average life span, thanks to the development of science and technology the ratio of the old to the whole population tends to increase. Thus, the problem of the old has been brought about as a social problem in this modern society. Due to a rapid change in social and economic problems recently in Korea, the systematic transformation in every aspect of society, has already been in existence. The problem of the old, however, is just beginning to draw attention, as one of social welfares. This research endeavours to find out one of the most suitable ways to solve the problem of the old through an analytical study of present realities from the view point of family-socialogy. In this study an analysis method by literally research has been adopted and the following facts have been confirmed. 1) In terms of the population structure the population ratio of the old in Korea faces no rapid growth as in Europe and America. Since 1966, it tends to be gradually increasing. That is the population ratio of the old above 60 years old increases from 5.2% in 1966 up to 5.4% in 1970, which appears to be more increasing in the future. 2) The phenomena of nuclear household seem to be expanding. Particularly in the urban society, two generation households tend to increase, while three generation households decreasing. 3) In terms of the economic structure, the old, because of the retiresystem and so on, remain as consuming members in the family. An employment survey on the part of the old shows that as of 1971, the number of the old above 60 years of age under employment was 510,000(5.2%) out of the total employments throughout the country, while more than 60% of the old maintain their life under the care by their sons and daughters. Moreover the specialization as a result of industrialization has increasingly deprived the old of employment opportunities, which has resulted in social problems for the aged so helpless. 4) The old, because of their separated living from their sons and daughters and because of the separation from their mates suffer from psychological distress, such as the feelings of isolation and instability. In particular, the old feel lonesome and isolated from their being unsuitable for the surroundings derived from the urbanized phenomens. 5) In Korea, an agnate family system has long been adopted, and men are only responsible for holding rituals for the ancestor. Under these circumstances, however, consanguinity-law based on the agnate family system must be basically improved in order to meet the present tradition in which the old parents are taken care of by the eldest son only, so that they could be looked after by any sons and daughters who are economically well off. 6) As to the structure of roles among family members, any flexible distribution of roles is desirable between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law. From above fact, the following solution for the problem of the old could be considered. First, A new climate must be created to look after the old parents by the sons and daughters much well off, regardless of their sex and family order in carrying out the responsibility. Second, social security system for the old must be established, and it will be necessary to study the experiences of much advanced nations in advance, to make them suitable for Korean climate. Third, In nature, any solution for the problem of the old will not be possible with an institutional guaranttee only. Instead, people's view on value must be first altered. Social education and enlightening movement must be widely deployed so that the old understand the changing society, while the young appreciate the realities faced by the old.
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