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중학생의 자아정체감에 관한 연구

Title
중학생의 자아정체감에 관한 연구
Other Titles
STUDY ON THE EGO IDENTITY OF A MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENT
Authors
윤명숙
Issue Date
1989
Department/Major
교육대학원 가정과교육전공
Keywords
중학생자아정체감가정교육
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
본 연구는 중학생의 자아정체감을 긍정적으로 정립시키기 위해, 중학생의 자아정체감 수준을 조사하고, 자아정체감 형성에 영향을 준다고 여겨지는 변인을 설정하여, 이 변인과 자아정체감과의 관계를 비교 분석함으로써 우리나라 중학교에서의 학생지도와 보다 바람직한 가족생활에의 기초자료를 제공하고자 하는 데 그 목적이 있다. 연구를 위한 표집대상은 서울시내 6개 공립 중학교의 3학년 학생으로서 총 453명이었다. 자아정체감의 측정도구로는 Dignan이 만든 Ego-Identity Scale을 서봉연이 번안하여 만든 64개 문항의 질문지를 중학생의 상황에 맞게 부분적으로 문장을 수정하여 사용하였으며, 부모의 사회경제적 배경, 형제수, 출생순위, 신체성숙상태, 교우관계, 학업성취정도를 설문으로 조사하였다. 수집된 자료의 처리는 SPSS Program Package에 의한 빈도평균, 표준편차, t검증, 변량분석, 다중비교분석의 통계방법을 적용하였으며 이상의 과정을 통해 얻은 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. 중학생의 전체 자아정체감은 성별에 따라 유의한 차이가 나타나지 않았으며, 자아정체감의 하위요인중 「자기수용」에서만 남학생들이 여학생들보다 유의하게 높았다. 2. 부모의 학력, 가정경제 수준에 따라 중학생의 전체 자아정체감의 차이는 모두 유의하지 않았다. 하위요인에서 아버지의 학력이 높은 집단은「대인역할기대」가 높았으며,어머니의 학력이 높은 집단은「대인역할기대」「자기수용」「자기존재의식」이 높았고 어머니의 학력이 낮은 집단은「독특성」이 높았다. 자기가 자각하고 있는 가정경제 수준이 높을수록 「대인관계」「대인역할기대」가 높았으며「독특성」은 낮게 나타났다. 3. 형제수, 출생순위에 따라 전체 자아정체감의 차이는 모두 유의하지 않았다. 하위요인에서는 형제수가 적은 집단이 형제수가 많은 집단보다 「대인역할기대」「자기수용」점수가 높았고, 출생순위가 첫째인 집단은 막내나 가운데인 집단보다「대인역할기대」가 높았다. 4. 신체성숙상태, 교우관계에 따라 전체 자아정체감의 차이는 모두 유의하게 나타났다. 즉, 신체성숙상태에 만족하는 집단일수록 전체 자아정체감이 높았으며 하위요인에서는「목표지향성」「자기수용」「자기주장」「자기존재의식」「대인관계」가 유의하게 높았다. 또한, 교우관계가 원만한 집단일수록 전체 자아정체감이 높았으며 하위요인에 있어서는 「목표지향성」「대인역할기대」「자기수용」「자기주장」「자기존재의식」「대인관계」가 유의하게 높았다. 5. 학입성취도에 따라 전체 자아정체감의 차이는 유의수준 0.1 이하에서 약하게 나타났다. 즉, 학업성취정도가 높을수록 전체 자아정체감이 높았으며 하위요인에서는「안정성」「대인역할기대」가 유의하게 높았다.;To establish the ego identity of a middle school student positively, this study is to suggest fundamental data for student guidance in a middle school and more desirable students' family lives by investigating the level of ego identity of middle school students, setting up the variables that seem to affect their ego identity and analyzing comparatively the relationship between such variables and ego identity. To achieve this, I have selected four hundred and thirty-five third year students in six public middle schools in Seoul as samples of my study. As for the measuring means over ego identity, I have used Seo Bong-yeon's version of Dignan's Ego Identity Scale into a questionnaire of 64 items amending some sentences in accordance with the situations of middle school students. And such matters as the social and economic background of parents, the number of brothers and sisters, the order of birth, the state of physical growth, schoolmate relationship and the academic achievement have been examined in the form of a question. In analyzing collected data, such statistical means as the frequency, the mean, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test have been used into SPSS program package and the consequences are as follows : 1. The marks of middle school students for every field of ego identity didn't differ significantly by the sex, but marks for "self-acceptance" only among eight subordinate factors were significantly high in boys group than girls group. 2. The difference in every field of ego identity according to parent's academic career or home economic level was not significant at all, but was in the subordinate factors, That is, group of a student whose father had a high academic career got higher marks for "interpersonal role expectation", while those who had a highly educated mother got higher marks for" interpersonal role expectation", "self-acceptance" and "sense of self". On the other hand, students whose mother was lowly educated got higher marks for "uniqueness". The higher the home economic level was in students' perception, the higher their marks for "interpersonal relation" and "role expectation", while the lower the home economic level, marks for "uniqueness" were higher. 3. The difference in every field of ego identity according to the number of brothers and sisters, and the order of birth, wasn't significant at all, but was in the subordinate factors. That is, group with below two brothers and sisters got higher marks for "interpersonal role expectation" and "self-acceptance" than those with over three brothers and sisters. And group of the first order of birth got higher marks for "interpersonal role expectation" than those of the middles and last. 4. The difference in every field of ego identity according to the state of physical growth and schoolmate relationship was all at the significant level. That is, the more satisfied with the state of physical growth, the higher the marks for ego identity, and marks for such factors as "goal-directedness", "self-acceptance", "self-assertiveness", "sense of self" and "interpersonal" relation among eitht subordinate factors were significantly high. Also, the more harmonious the schoolmate relationship was, the higher the marks for ego identity, and marks for such subordinate factors as "goal-directedness", "interpersonal role expectation", "self- acceptance", "self-assertiveness", "sense of self" and "interpersonal relation" were significantly high. 5. The marks for every field of ego identity according to academic achievement showed little difference below 10% of significance level. That is, the higher the academic achievement was, the higher students' ego identity, and marks for "stability" and "interpersonal role expectation" were significantly high.
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