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Communicative Approach의 이론 및 방법론 연구

Title
Communicative Approach의 이론 및 방법론 연구
Other Titles
(A) study on the Communicative Approach and Communicative Activities
Authors
박현숙
Issue Date
1988
Department/Major
교육대학원 어학교육전공영어교육분야
Keywords
Communicative Approach의사소통방법론의사소통능력영어교육
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
유진형
Abstract
Until now, the aim of studying English seems to have been focused on the entrance examinations and various training, and teaching programs have emphasized such kinds of skills as reading and writing. As a result, after many years of English classes, students' abilities are limited to reading and they cannot give expressions what they think and feel etc.. So nowadays the need for communication development is getting greater. Traditionally there are two major theories of language learning: one, Audio-Lingual Method, based on Behavioristic Psychology and Structuralism, emphasizes pattern practice and memorization. The other cognitive-code-learning theory, based on Cognitive Psychology and Chomsky's competence, emphasizes on the students' gaining the concept of the underlying Semantic choices using various structures. But after being taught by these two methods, students could not express their thought and opinions. To bridge the gap between drill situation in the classroom and actual communicative-oriented method as learning language. And for effective communication, the learner has to improve communicative competence. The concept is extended from chomsky's competence but communicative competence includes knowledge of the rules for understanding and procuding both referential and the social meaning of language, the ability to use language is its various social functions on proper occasions. Like this, the concept of communicative competence includes not only grammarticality but also appropriateness and acceptability in sociolinguistic situations as Hymes suggested. Besides, I have examined Paulston's, Widdowson's and Littlewood's suggestions; the first includes social formulas and dialogues, community-oriented tasks, problem-solving activities and role-play. The second includes (1) Correctness and appropriacy (2) Usage and use as aspects of performance (3) Usage and use in classroom presentation (4) Aspects of meaning: signification and value (5) Usage and use in the design of language teaching materials. The third includes (1) Sharing information with restricted cooperation (2) Sharing information with unrestricted cooperation (3) Sharing and processing information (4) Processing information. In communicative learning, the teacher's role is to give more opportunity to the students and he must be not an instructor burt a helper. It is also important to keep natural situation so that the students can fell a sense of security without psychological defensiveness. We cannot assume that all of what is discovered about language learning and teaching is directly applicable to the classroom. The important thing is that students should be exposed to appropriate samples of language and given relevant and motivating activities to help them learn. This is what the Communicative Approach does. I think there is something in this, and I should certainly not wish condemn the Communicative Approach out of hand because its philosophy is confused. However, designers and providers of language instruction should attempt to study and evaluate the new knowledge and try to determine how to assimilate and apply it to the classroom instruction.;한 언어를 안다는 것은 정확한 문장을 지어낼 수 있는 능력(linguistic competence) 뿐 아니라 그것을 실제 상황에서 유효 적절하게 사용할 수 있는 의사 소통 능력(communicative competence)을 수반해야 한다. 그러나 이제까지의 영어교육은 학습자 자신이 영문구조에 대해서는 많은 지식을 가지고 있으면서도 실질적인 의사전달 언어로서 영어구사 능력이 발휘되어야 할 상황에서 효과적으로 잘 대처하지 못했다는 점에서 많은 비난을 받아 왔다. 정확한 문법지식, 수준 높은 어휘력 등도 언어 학습에 있어서 중요한 역할을 하고 있으나 실제 상황 적응력을 기르는 것이 언어 교육의 본질이라는 점에서는 많은 비난을 받아 왔다. 왜냐하면 언어활동이란 의미내용과 형식이 결합되어 표출되고 이해되는 의사소통을 의미하기 때문이다. 외국어 교수법의 목적이 이러한 능력 배양이므로 교실 안에서의 학습 활동도 이러한 목적에 따라 알맞은 방법으로 접근해 가는 것이 당연한 일이다. 그러나 요즈음 각광을 받고 있는 이 교수법이 가장 이상적인 방법론이라고 단정지을 수 없다. 왜냐하면 사람들의 수준과 요구에 따라서 단순히 언어의 의미·기능적인 면만을 다를 수 없기 때문이다. 따라서 중요한 것은 과거의 언어 교육 방법론과 Communicative Approach의 방법론을 적절히 접목시키는 일이다. 이를 위해서 교수자들은 끊임없이 새로운 이론 및 주의·주장·방법론과 접하면서 주어진 환경내에서 효율성을 꾀할 수 있도록 노력을 경주해야 할 것이다.
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