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고등학생의 식품 첨가물에 대한 인식과 가공식품 구매행동

Title
고등학생의 식품 첨가물에 대한 인식과 가공식품 구매행동
Other Titles
A Study on the Effects of the food additive perception and knowledge and processed food purchase behavior of the high school students, and analyze their food additive knowledge and processed food purchase behavior according to educational experience in order to provide basic information for education on food additive
Authors
이영주
Issue Date
2011
Department/Major
교육대학원 가정과교육전공
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
조미숙
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to examine the food additive perception and knowledge and processed food purchase behavior of the high school students in the Incheon region, and analyze their food additive knowledge and processed food purchase behavior according to educational experience in order to provide basic information for education on food additive. A survey questionnaire was used for 624 male and female high school students in the city of Incheon to collect data for this study. In the total of 619 copies out of 624 copies collected were used for the final analysis and SPSS/WIN 12.0 program was used to come up with frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and conduct t-test, ANOVA and χ² (Chi-square) analysis. As for the post-test method, Duncan's multiple range test was conducted. The summary of the study result is as follows. First, the perceptions on food additive by the high school students are as follow. Most of the students have come across a term 'food additive' and more than half of the students were obtaining information on food additive through mass media. They had negative perceptions on the effects on health, safety and necessity of food additive and 51.7% of them revealed to have the perception that food additives are not enhancing the food quality. In regards to other perceptions on food additive, it was revealed that the female students showed a stronger tendency than the male students in the level of effort to purchase foods with no additives despites their high price, the awareness on inclusion of food additives in process food and the understanding on the necessity of extensive food labeling. However, it was revealed that the female students consider the food exterior more so than the male students. In the question on whether or not they are checking food additives while purchasing food, more than half of the students of 51.4% did not check them. Second, the knowledge on food additive by the high school students were as follow. In regards to the purpose of using food additive, most of the students were aware of the purpose of using coloring agent and preservative but the rate of correct answer on the purpose of using sweetener and flavoring was low. In the number of purposes for using food additive, 67% of the students were aware of more than one purpose. With regards to the knowledge on food additive, most of the students had correct understanding. However, the rate of correct answer on the items of 'full food labeling is being implemented' and 'Calcium fortified milk cannot be considered as having added food additive since it added nutrient' was relatively lower than that for other items with higher rate for the male students than the female students, thereby showing gender difference. Third, the processed food purchase behaviors of the high school student were as follow. It was revealed that ice cream was a processed food that they frequently ate as they frequently made its purchase at large mart. In regards to the purchase frequency of processed food per week, the response of 3-4 times was the highest. As for the monthly allowance spent on purchasing processed food, 20-30% of the entire allowance was used, and the response of taste was the highest for the motive for purchase and the consideration item for purchase. In the case of not considering food additive while purchasing processed food, it was revealed that 49.9% was for sweetener, 44.8% for preservative, 44.7% for flavoring and 42.5% for coloring agent. In the case of considering food additive according to the frequency of purchasing processed food, it was revealed that most of those who purchased processed food frequently considered food additive during their purchase. In most of the items on food additive knowledge and perception according to the frequency of purchasing processed food, the percentage was the highest for the students that purchased processed food 3-4 a week. However, the students that hardly ever purchased processed food had more negative perceptions on the necessity of food additive and they made greater efforts to purchase foods with no additive despite the high price. Fourth, the food additive knowledge and processed food purchase behavior according to the educational experience in food additive are as follow. In regards to the educational experience in food additive, more than half of the students had the educational experiences. As for the perception on the necessity of food additive education, 38.9% of the students thought that education is needed and 16.2% thought that it is not needed. In the willingness to receive the education, 32.3% said they are willing. The students that received food additive education were highly aware of the food additive terms and it was revealed that they gained knowledge on food additive through their teacher. In regards to the effects of food additive on health, students with the experience of having received the education twice had the most negative perception and it was found that they most significantly consider food additive while purchasing food. In the general perception on food additive, it was revealed that the students with the experience of having received the education three times had high perceptions. In the knowledge on the purpose of usage, the correct response rate revealed to be high for those with the experience of having received the education once for sweetener, those with three times of experience for coloring agent, those with twice of experience for preservative and flavoring. In most of the items on the differences in the general knowledge of food additive, it was revealed that the students with the experience of having received the education showed a high correct response rate. In the implementation of food nutrition labeling, it was revealed that the correct response rate was the highest for the students with no educational experience. With regards to food additive educational experience and processed food purchase behavior, large mart was the highest response for the purchase location. In the purchase frequency of processed food, it was revealed that the purchase frequency of processed food per week was once-twice for the students with no educational experience as well as for those with the experience of having received the education once, and the purchase frequency was 3-4 times for those with the experience of having received the education twice, three times and more than four times. As for the motive for purchasing processed food, the response of 'hunger' and 'taste' revealed to be the highest, and the purchase cost of 20-30% was the highest. It was also revealed that taste was significantly considered in their purchase, and there were no meaningful differences according to the educational experience. In regards to the consideration of food additive while purchasing processed food, it was revealed that flavoring, preservative and coloring agent were most significantly considered by those with the experience of having received the education three times, and flavoring was most significantly considered by those with the experience of having received the education twice. The number of textbook types that research participants used was in the total of 10 types. The number of students that received the education using K1 textbook was the highest followed by D1, H1, J, K2 and C. It was revealed that the contents on food additive were included more extensively in the textbook K3, M, H2 and D2, which are the textbooks that the research participants did not use, than the textbooks that they used. It is thought that the educational experience would have had effects on the study results on the relationship between food additive knowledge and processed food purchase behavior. It was revealed through the above result that the high school students in the Incheon region lacked the efforts to consume appropriate amounts of food additive despite that they had negative perceptions on food additive. Accordingly, it is thought that the education would be necessary for allowing students to recognize the importance of healthy dietary life in connection with actual life and conduct processed food purchase behavior for consuming appropriate amounts of food additive based on accurate food additive knowledge.;본 연구는 인천지역 고등학생을 대상으로 식품첨가물 인식 및 지식, 가공식품 구매 행동을 파악하고 교육경험별 식품첨가물 지식과 가공식품 구매 행동을 분석하여 식품 첨가물에 대한 교육을 위한 기초 자료를 제공하고자 한다. 인천광역시 소재의 남녀 고등학교 학생 624명을 대상으로 설문지를 사용하여 자료를 수집하였다. 수집된 자료 624부중 총 619부를 최종분석에 사용하였고 자료는 SPSS/WIN 12.0프로그램을 사용하여 빈도, 백분율, 평균, 표준편차, T-test, ANOVA, χ²Chi-square) 분석을 실시했고 사후 검증 방법으로 Duncan's multiple range test를 실시하였다. 본 연구의 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 식품 첨가물에 대한 고등학생들의 인식은 다음과 같다. 대부분의 학생들이 식품 첨가물이란 용어에 대해 접해 본 적이 있었으며, 식품 첨가물 관련 정보는 절반 이상의 학생들이 대중매체를 통해 얻고 있었다. 식품첨가물이 건강에 미치는 영향과 안전성, 필요성에 대해서는 부정적으로 인식했으며 식품 첨가물이 식품의 품질을 향상 시키는지 않는다고 인식하는 경우가 51.7%로 나타났다. 기타 식품 첨가물에 대한 인식에서 가격이 비싸도 식품첨가물이 없는 식품을 구매하려고 노력 정도와 가공식품에 식품 첨가물의 포함여부에 대한 인식, 식품완전표시제의 필요성에 대한 인식은 여학생이 남학생보다 높게 나타났다. 하지만 여학생은 남학생보다 식품의 외형을 더 고려하는 것으로 나타났다. 식품 구매 시 식품첨가물을 확인하는지 여부에서는 확인하지 않는 학생이 51.4%로 절반 이상이었다. 둘째, 식품첨가물에 대한 고등학생들의 지식은 다음과 같았다. 식품 첨가물의 사용 용도에 대해 착색료와 방부제는 대부분의 학생들이 사용 용도를 제대로 알고 있었으나 감미료와 조미료의 사용 용도에 대한 정답률은 낮았다. 식품 첨가물의 사용용도를 몇 개나 알고 있는지에 대해 67%의 학생들이 1개 이상의 사용 용도에 대해 알고 있었다. 식품 첨가물 관련 지식에 대해 대부분의 학생들이 제대로 알고 있었으나 '식품완전표시제가 실시되고 있다'와 '칼슘 강화우유는 영양소를 첨가한 것이므로 식품 첨가물이 들어간 것이라 할 수 없다'는 항목에 대한 정답률은 다른 항목에 비해 낮았으며 남학생보다 여학생들의 정답률이 더 높아 성별 차이를 보였다 셋째, 고등학생들의 가공식품 구매 행동은 다음과 같다. 자주 먹는 가공식품은 아이스크림으로 나타났으며 주로 구매 하는 장소는 대형마트였고 일주일간 가공식품 구매 횟수는 3-4회가 가장 많았다. 가공식품 구매에 쓰는 한 달 용돈은 전체 용돈의 20-30%정도를 사용했으며, 구매 동기와 구매 시 고려 사항은 모두 맛이 가장 많았다. 가공식품 구매 시 식품 첨가물을 고려하지 않는 경우가 감미료 49.9%, 방부제 44.8%, 조미료 44.7%, 착색료 42.5%로 나타났으며 가공식품 구매 횟수별 식품 첨가물을 고려 여부에서는 대부분 가공식품 구매 횟수가 많을수록 식품 첨가물을 고려해서 구입하는 것으로 나타났다. 가공식품 구매 횟수별 식품 첨가물 지식과 인식 대부분 항목에서 가공식품을 일주일에 3-4회 구매 하는 학생들이 가장 높게 나타났다. 하지만 가공식품을 거의 구매 하지 않는 학생들이 식품 첨가물의 필요성에 대해 더 부정적으로 인식했으며 비싸도 식품 첨가물이 없는 식품을 구매하려는 노력을 더 많이 하는 것으로 나타났다. 넷째, 식품 첨가물 교육경험에 따른 식품 첨가물 지식과 가공식품 구매 행동은 다음과 같다. 식품첨가물에 대한 교육 경험은 교육 경험이 있는 학생이 절반 이상이었고 식품 첨가물 교육의 필요성에 대한 인식은 교육이 필요하다고 생각하는 학생들이 38.9%, 필요 없다고 생각하는 학생이 16.2%였다. 교육을 받을 의향에 대해 받을 의향이 있다가 32.3%로 나타났다 식품첨가물 교육을 받은 학생들의 식품 첨가물 용어 인지도가 높았으며 식품 첨가물 관련 지식을 선생님을 통해 얻는 것으로 나타났다. 식품 첨가물이 건강에 미치는 영향에 대해 교육 경험이 2회인 학생들의 인식이 가장 부정적이었고 식품 구매 시에도 식품 첨가물을 가장 크게 고려하는 것으로 나타났다. 식품 첨가물 일반 인식에서는 교육 경험 3회인 학생들의 인식이 높게 나타났다. 사용 용도에 대한 지식에서 감미료는 교육 경험 1회, 착색료는 교육 경험 3회, 방부제와 조미료는 교육 경험 2회인 학생의 정답률이 높게 나타났다. 식품 첨가물 일반 지식의 차이 대부분의 항목에서 교육 경험이 있는 학생들의 정답률이 높았으며 식품영양표시제 실시 유무에서는 교육경험이 없다의 정답비율이 가장 높게 나타났다. 식품 첨가물 교육 경험 가 가공식품 구매 행동 관련해서 구매 장소는 대형 마트가 가장 많았고 가공식품 구매 횟수에서는 교육 경험이 없는 학생과 교육 경험이 1회인 학생들은 일주일에 가공식품을 1-2회, 교육 경험이 2회, 3회, 4회 이상인 학생들의 가공식품 구매 횟수는 3-4회로 나타났다. 가공식품 구매 동기는 배가 고파서와 맛있어서가 높게 나타났고, 구매 비용은 20-30% 가장 많았으며 구매 시에는 맛을 크게 고려하는 것으로 나타났으며 교육 경험별 유의한 차이는 없었다. 가공식품 구매 시 식품 첨가물 고려 여부는 조미료, 방부제, 착색료의 경우 교육 경험이 3회인 학생들, 조미료는 교육 경험 2회인 학생들이 가장 크게 고려해서 구매 하는 것으로 나타났다. 조사 대상자들이 배운 교과서의 종류는 총 10종이다. K 1 교과서로 교육 받은 학생들이 가장 많았고 D 1, H 1, J, K 2, C 교과서 순이었다. 조사 대상자들이 배운 교과서보다 조사 대상자들이 배우지 않은 K 3, M, H 2, D 2 교과서에서 식품첨가물에 대해 더 많은 내용이 편성되어 있는 것으로 나타났으며, 이는 교육 경험이 식품첨가물 지식과 가공식품 구매 행동과의 관계의 연구 결과에도 영향을 주었을 것으로 생각된다. 이상의 결과를 통해 인천 지역 고등학생들이 식품첨가물에 대한 부정적인 인식을 가지고 있음에도 불구하고 적정량의 식품 첨가물을 섭취하려는 노력은 부족한 것으로 나타나 실생활과 연관해 건강한 식생활의 중요성을 인식하고 정확한 식품 첨가물 지식을 바탕으로 적정량의 식품 첨가물을 섭취하기 위한 가공식품 구매 행동까지 할 수 있도록 연계된 교육이 필요하다 생각된다.
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