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중국인 한국어 학습자의 칭찬 응대 화행 발달 연구

Title
중국인 한국어 학습자의 칭찬 응대 화행 발달 연구
Other Titles
A Study on the Development of Speech Act Competence of Compliment Responses of Chinese Korean Learners
Authors
최이슬
Issue Date
2010
Department/Major
국제대학원 한국학과
Publisher
이화여자대학교 국제대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
이해영
Abstract
This study aims to analyse Chinese Korean Learner(CKL)'s development patterns of the speech act of the compliment responses in perspective of the interlanguage pragmatic development. The development of the competence of compliment responses of CKL defined the approximate per cents of using strategies by CKL to the compliment response strategies of Korean Native Speaker(KNS). The development pattern of the competence of compliment responses of CKL is evaluated on the basis of the use of Korean native speaker(KNS) like strategies according to their Korean language proficiency. To identify data were obtained from 4 groups; devided to 3 level proficiency classify CKL as beginners, intermediate learners, and advanced learners by their proficiency, and KNS. The standard for appropriateness of compliment responses is the percentage of KNS's compliment response strategies. To achieve this aim, the Chinese Korean Learners are divided into three levels: beginner, intermediate, and advanced, while the data related to the use of the speech act of compliment response by KNS are collected. After analyzing the KNS' compliment response strategies, the standard for appropriateness of compliment response is decided. For collect the data, first, KNS and CKL's compliment response strategies collected in 24 contexts composed by distances, power, topics of compliments, and 15 contexts was selected by their possibility to occur measuring Likert scale divided in 5 degrees among the 24 contexts. Then I collected the data of compliment response strategies of KNS and CKL by DCT composed with the 15contexts. To collect the data of the use of compliment response strategies by KNS and CKL, I devised a questionnaire which include 24 contexts in which complement response strategies are likely to be employed. Those 24 contexts are categorized into three broad factors: distance, power, and topics of compliment. Among the 24 situations, 15 contexts in which the possibility that compliment response act could occur is beyond the average are selected for DCT questionnaire. This is measured by 5-degree Likert scale among the 24 contexts. Participants of this study are CKL as beginners, intermediate learners, and advanced learners, and by their proficiency and KNS who are ages from 20 to 35; students of university, graduate students, and business men in Seoul. The participants of this study are CKL as beginners, intermediate, and advanced learners. There are equally 30 students in each level group and they are students learning Korean language in the affiliated institutions of universities. 54 KNS including undergraduate, graduate, and business men in Seoul also participated in this research. The result of this study is (1) CKL's compliment responses speech acts presented aspect of development by using strategies in their proficiency, (2) some aspects of development pattern by increasing and decreasing, and another aspects of development are graphically U-pattern by overuse and underuse, especially in strategies obtained high percentages of the use. The results of the research is as follows: First, the development patterns of compliment response strategies used by CKL is differed by their language proficiency. Some development patterns are shown by the increase and decrease in the use of general strategies. Also, the graphically U-shaped pattern by the overuse and underuse of the strategies is another aspect of the development, which is usually shown with strategies with high frequency. Therefore pragmatic competence of advanced CKL in perspective of percentages and a number of strategies couldn't approach to KNS. Through these aspects, CKL's using compliment response strategies are not variable than KNS's, and CKL's overuse and underuse of the strategies make U-pattern in too much of specific strategies. Furthermore, considering the frequencies and number of strategies, it is shown that the Chinese Korean leaners' ability to perform compliment response act could not reach to that of KNS, even with advanced students. From this result, I could conclude that the strategies used by CKL is limited than that of KNS, showing overuse or underuse of the strategies which make U-shaped pattern, or too much use of specific strategies. Pragmatic failure arise by insufficiency of teaching speech act focusing compliment responses in the situation caused by pragmatic transfer and fossilization. So come up with contents of compliment responses strategies for CKL. Lastly, I propose that post study can gather the data by Conversation Analysis(CA) instead of incomplete oral data, DCT. Moreover, I could identify CKL's pragmatics failure resulted from the insufficiency of teaching speech act focusing on compliment response. This aspect of pragmatic failure is presented through transfer or fossilization. Therefore, based on the result of the research, I suggested the contents for teaching compliment response speech act. Finally, I proposed further post study to gather the data by Conversation Analysis(CA) instead of incomplete oral data, DCT.;본 연구는 중국인 한국어 학습자(Chinese Korean Learner; 이하 CKL)의 칭찬 응대 화행 발달 과정을 중간언어 화용발달의 관점에서 살펴 본 연구이다. CKL이 한국어 모어 화자(Korean Native Speaker; 이하 KNS)에 근접한 전략 사용률을 보이는 과정을 숙달도별로 살펴보며 칭찬 응대 화행 수행 능력의 발달 과정을 살펴보았다. 이를 위해 먼저 CKL을 초급, 중급, 고급으로 언어 숙달도를 나누고, KNS의 칭찬 응대 전략 자료를 수집한 후, 사용률을 분석하여 칭찬 응대 화행의 적절성 기준으로 설정하였다. KNS와 CKL의 칭찬 응대 전략 자료를 수집하기 위해 친소, 지위, 칭찬 주제 변인으로 구성된 24가지의 칭찬 응대가 일어날 수 있는 상황을 구성하여 설문지를 작성한 후, 5간 척도를 사용하여 발생 가능한 상황을 추출하였다. 24가지 상황 중에서 발생 가능성이 평균 이상인 15개 상황으로 DCT 설문지를 제작하여 칭찬 응대 화행 자료를 수집하였다. 연구 대상은 CKL 초급, 중급, 고급 학습자 각 30과 KNS 54명으로 CKL은 한국의 대학 부설 한국어 교육 기관에 재학 중인 학생들을 대상으로 하였고, KNS는 대학생, 대학원생, 직장인을 대상으로 하였다. CKL과 KNS는 모두 20세 이상 35세 이하의 연령대로 연구 참여자를 구성하였다. 연구 결과는 다음과 같았다. 먼저, CKL의 칭찬 응대 화행은 숙달도에 따라 전략 사용에 있어서 발달 양상을 나타냈다. 일반적인 전략 사용률의 증가와 감소에 의한 발달 과정이 나타났고 과대사용과 과소사용으로 인한 U자형 발달 과정도 특히, 고빈도 전략에 자주 나타났다. 또한, 전략 사용률과 사용 전략 수 측면에서 본 칭찬 응대 수행 능력이 고급에서도 KNS 까지 도달하지는 못한다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 이를 통해, 칭찬 응대 전략 사용 양상은 CKL이 KNS보다 전략 사용이 다양하지 못하고, 전략의 과잉사용이나 과소사용 양상을 보이며, 편중된 전략을 사용한다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 다음으로, CKL의 화용적 실패를 확인할 수 있었으며, 이러한 화용적 실패가 전반적인 칭찬 응대 화행 교육의 부재 가운데 전이와 화석화 현상을 통해 나타나고 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. 따라서 연구 결과를 바탕으로 칭찬 응대 화행의 전략 교수 항목을 제시하였다. 마지막으로 본 연구의 준 구어 자료 수집의 미비점을 보완할 수 있는 후속 연구를 제안하였다.
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