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예측전략훈련이 영어 대화문 듣기능력 향상에 미치는 영향

Title
예측전략훈련이 영어 대화문 듣기능력 향상에 미치는 영향
Other Titles
(The) Effect of Prediction Strategy on Listening Ability in English Dialogues
Authors
박은수
Issue Date
1996
Department/Major
교육대학원 영어교육전공
Keywords
예측전략훈련영어 대화문듣기능력 향상중학생영어교육
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
최근 듣기이해기능은 원할한 의사소통 능력을 배양하는 데 기본이 되는 기능으로 간주되어 그 중요성이 더욱 강조되고 있다. 그러나 현재의 중·고등학교 영어교육 현장에서 이루어지고 있는 대부분의 듣기수업은 교재에 나타난 대화부분을 녹음기로 한 두 번 들어 본 후에 문제를 풀어보는 방식이 진행되어, 지도라기보다는 평가 위주의 수업이 주를 이루고 있는 실정이다. 그러므로, 진정한 듣기능력 향상을 위해서는 학습자들로 하여금 듣기활동에 적극적으로 참여하게 할 수 있는 보다 체계적인 듣기지도가 필요하다. 본 연구에서는 학습자들이 자신의 선험지식을 적극적으로 활용해 듣기활동에 자발적으로 참여할 수 있도록 하기 위한 노력의 일환으로 선험지식을 활성화하는 예측전략 훈련이 우리나라 중학생들의 듣기능력 향상에 미치는 영향에 대하여 연구하고자 한다. 본 실험연구는 선행학습 유형별로 그림집단, 주제집단, 단어집단, 그리고 통제집단으로 분리된 중학교 2학년 학습자들을 대상으로 8주간 실시되었다. 그림, 주제, 단어집단에게는 선행학습을 통한 예측전략 훈련을 실시하였고 통제집단에게는 예측전략 훈련을 실시하지 않았으며, 듣기전 지도 방법외에 듣기수업에 사용된 교재와 시간등은 모두 동일하였다. 본 실험연구를 통해 얻어진 연구 결과 및 교육적 시사점은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 그림, 주제, 단어집단은 선행학습을 한 듣기자료에 대해 모두 유의한 향상도를 보였으나, 통제집단은 어떠한 자료에 대해서도 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다. 이러한 결과로, 예측전략 훈련을 통해 배양된 선험지식 활용능력은 듣기이해에 효과적인 영향을 미치는 것을 알 수 있다. 둘째, 전반적 내용이해와 세부적 내용이해 면에서 그림, 주제, 단어집단은 모두 유의한 향상도를 나타냈다. 전반적 내용이해를 위해 효과적인 선행학습 활동은 그림제시와 주제토의였고, 세부적 내용이해를 위해서는 모든 유형의 활동이 효과적이었으나, 그 중에서도 특히 주제토의와 단어학습이 효과적인 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과는 예측전략 훈련시 교사는 듣기목적에 따라 적합한 선행학습 활동을 다르게 계획해야 함을 시사해준다. 예컨대 전반적 내용이해와 세부적 내용이해 중 어느 것에 초점을 더 맞추는가에 따라 보다 더 효과적인 선행학습 활동에 대한 선택이 달라져야 할 것이다. 결론적으로 예측전략 훈련은 우리나라 중학생의 선험지식 활용능력을 배양시킬 수 있으며, 이는 대화문 듣기이해에 효과적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 볼 수 있다. 이러한 본 연구의 결과들을 바탕으로 볼 때, 앞으로의 연구에서는 예측전략 훈련이 영어듣기능력이 좀 더 우수한 학생들의 듣기능력 향상에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는가를 알아보기 위해 고등학생과 대학생을 대상으로 한 연구가 필요하리라 본다. 또한 이러한 훈련이 대화문이 아닌 일인 담화자료를 사용했을 때 어떠한 효과가 나타나는지에 대한 연구도 요구되는데, 이러한 연구를 통해 예측전략 훈련을 위한 적절한 듣기교재의 개발도 함께 이루어져야 하리라 본다.;Toni Morrison, who constantly tries to establish the methods of blacks' search for identity in white-centered American society in her novels, tries to reveal that the force of black foremothers is one of the spiritual bases to save blacks from being marginalized and silenced. particularly she sees black women's motherhood with which they develop independence and creativity as one of the most important ways to establish their identity in sula and beloved. This study is an analysis of these two novels to show how Morrison proposes black women's power as a means to obtain positive resources to preserve blacks' racial and cultural values by establishing their identity against those of a white dominated society. For this, this study compares different points of view towards the way of life to pursue inner freedom and self-identity and also toward black women's motherhood. In sula the conventional patriarchal view of life and the progressive creative view of life are compared. In Beloved the contrast between the racist view of white-centered society and a biack woman's self-declarative view are surveyed. Black women were supposed to have their reason of being only in terms of reproducing children and increasing the property of white people in their history of slavery in America. Though there were much racial and sexual oppression, they overcame them and tried to keep their identities as blacks; and their motherhood, as this study shows, was the most powerful to pursue their identities. In sula, their powerful motherhood is shown through Eva, who is sacrificial enough to give up one of her legs to economic independence for her children but assertive enough to kill her only son not to leave him in the state of regression and mental derailment, and also through Hannah, who casts off the idea of motherhood as a moral duty. In beloved, Sethe's mother changes her brand as a slave to a sign to differentiate her self from others, and Sethe's mother-in-law, Baby Suggs, becomes a spiritual leader preaching to black people on how to love themselves. These women who overcome the doubly oppressive bonds of racism and sexism are all good examples to provide the black community with positive power for its survival. In sula the likes of Eva and Hannah become alternative models of life, and they are inherited to Sula's experimental life which refuses the patriarchal and conservative values of society and searches for her own identity and freedom. However, the Bottomites including Nel consider Sula's creative way of life as evil according to the moral dichotomy of goodness and badness. This is related to the fact that they succumb to the ruling power of the whites and passively admit themselves as the Other of the society. However, Morrison makes readers recognize how narrow and static the Bottomites' lifestyle is through Nel's final realization that what she really has lost is her self-identity, which she shared with Sula in their early life. Furthermore, the communal of the Bottomites in the tunnel whose construction they couldn't take part in apparently shows their narrowed-down survival is meaningless because it doesn't have any vital life force as Sula shows in her search for identity. In Beloved, slavery, the symbol of black people's suffering can be overcome by the power of black women's motherhood, and this is shown wel in Sethe's killing her daughter to protect her against the psychic death of slavery but, on the other hand, even such a resistive motherhood has its limits because it can have harmful effects on Sethe's individuality. Beloved, who causes this harmful effects because she wants the full possession of Sethe, is Sethe's incarnated daughter and, at the same time, she represents all the loved ones who died on the slave ships in Middle passage symbolizing blacks' painful pst of slavery. In addition, Beloved makes Sethe confront the without any resistance, leading her to recognize who she really is. This rememory of the past is a very important part in that all the blacks can obtain both inner emancipation and spiritual freedom in the process of overcoming the historical and institutional restraints of slavery. Meanwhile, Sethe's practical daughter, Denver, tries to protect her mother, Sethe, from Beloved's strong obsession with her and asks for help of community women. In the result, the limits of individual motherhood can be overcome through communal-cooperation and mutual-nurturing of the whole black community. In other words, it is possible the conflict between motherhood and a woman's individual autonomy can be resolved by communal motherhood and search for identity. This solution suggests a positive force by which the black community can continue to survive in American society. Morrison proposes black women's powerful, independent and creative way of life and their motherhood as a means to establish the identity of black peopel, comparing the points of view toward pursuing self-identity, that is, that of patriarchal and racial society and that of self-assertive black women's The significance of the study on Morrison's black women, particularly their mother-daughter relationship, lies not only in clarifying their search for individual identity but also in showing that Morrison suggests a genuine foundation for the black community to stand independently and healthily in white-centered American society through black women's motherhood and their mutual mutual self-healing and cooperation.
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