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The Management of Nurses' Training School of PO KU NYO KWAN (1903 similar to 1933)

The Management of Nurses' Training School of PO KU NYO KWAN (1903 similar to 1933)
Lee, Bang-weon
Ewha Authors
Issue Date
Journal Title
1225-505XJCR Link
KOREAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL HISTORY vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 355 - 393
Woman's Foreign Missionary SocietyPO KU NYO KWANNurses&aposTraining SchoolMargaret J. EdmundsKIM MarthaLEE Grace
Document Type
This paper aims to examine the establishing background, curriculum and organization of personnel of Nurses' Training School of PO KU NYO KWAN(Caring For and Saving Woman's Hospital), the first nurses' training school in Korea. It is attempt to richen Korean medical history by the historical approach to modern nurses training institution in Korea. PO KU NYO KWAN, the first women's hospital in Korea was established in 1887 by Metta Howard, who was sent by the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of Northern Methodist Episcopal Church. Women doctors who were responsible for PO KU NYO KWAN felt the necessity of the professional nurses' training institution during performing medical activity with the help of Korean assistants and asked the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society to establish the nurses' training institution consistently. Margaret J. Edmunds was sent with the mission to establish nurses' training school in PO KU NYO KWAN. She made regulations for establishing nurses' training school, translated 'nurse' into "Gan-ho-won" in Korean language, made nurses' uniforms and prepared textbooks. Nurses' Training School of PO KU NYO KWAN was opened late December in 1903 officially. It had various subjects relating nursing in curriculum. The faculty of it was mainly comprised of medical missionaries of Methodist Episcopal Church and Presbyterian Church. Also the graduates of Severance Medical School and the graduates and students of Nurses' Training School of PO KU NYO KWAN participated its curriculum as teaching staff. In late 1920, Joseon Nurses Association (Joseon ganhobuhoe) discussed about the requirements for admission and the course of study for missionary nurses training school. After this process, students who were qualified for high-level class could have admission for Nurses' Training School of PO KU WO KWAN. Medical staff belonged to East Gate Hospital and the graduates of Ewha College taught classes in it. First capping ceremony was held on January 25, 1906 and first graduate ceremony was held on November 11, 1908 in Nurses' Training School of PO KU NYO KWAN. They were for nurse students who finished proper course of study. Capping ceremony and graduation ceremony were not held regularly. The superintendent of Nurses' Training School graduated qualified students irregularly. The superintendents of Nurses' Training School were Margaret J. Edmunds, Alta I. Morrison, Mary M. Cutler, Naomi A. Anderson, E. S. Roberts, M. M. Rogers, and E. T. Rosenberger. They worked for the establishment of the first Korean nurses' training school, the development of the curriculum of it, the organization of faculty of it and making various opportunity for nursing practical training till the closure of it in 1933. Professional experts of Korean nursing were produced thanks to their efforts. We can identify 49 graduates of Nurses' Training School of PO KU NYO KWAN, including KIM Martha and LEE Grace. After graduation, most of them worked as nurses in mission hospitals and institutions and taught classes in nurses' training school. Nurses' Training School of PO KU NY KWAN was the first modern nurses' training institution in Korea. Korean women could turn over new leaves, overcome their traditional view of womanhood which they had as Korean women, and change their consciousness in it.
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