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韓國 靑少年의 家庭環境 變因과 罪意識과의 關係

韓國 靑少年의 家庭環境 變因과 罪意識과의 關係
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(A) Study on the Relationships between Family Variables and Guilt Feelings
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교육대학원 교육학전공교육심리분야
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
The basic factor in the development of conscience or Moral development is guilt-feeling and its development is giving great effects on the formation of human conscience. Generally, the view point makes some difference according to the two following kinds of theories. First, learning-theory approach expects that certain conditions of parental punishment should bring about feelings of anxiety and inhibitions of deviant responses, regardless of current situational punishment or rewards. These moral responses are generalized habits of inhibitions such as; (a) habits of moral inhibitions are generalized across situations inside or outside the home; (b) inhibitions learned at home with parent will generalize to situations outside the home; (c) inhibition habits learned in situations where a punishing agent has been present will be generalized to situations where a punishing agent is not present. Secondly, the guilt concept has received its most systematic and eloborate treatment in psychoanalytic theory. Three of the basic concepts of guilt in psychoanalytic theory grow out of common-sense notions; (a) guilt- reactions are considered as a product of identifications,i.e., of an equation of the self with the blaming responses of another; (b) guilt is viewed as basically self-punishment. The view is, in turn, related to the view that guilt is inward turning of aggressive drives; (c) conscience or the guiltsystem (superego) is a unitary system relatively distinct from the rest of the personality. Really, many variables operate upon the formation of guilt-feeling, but the basic important variables of them, i.e, parental attitude in discipline, sex difference, age level, and home environment and social class, are directly related to development or formation of conscience or morality. So, this study is ready to investigate the effects of these four independent variables under following six major hypothesis conditions. 1. Parental attitude about child-rearing in discipline will affect various dimensions of guilt-feeling. 2. Parent's acceptive attitude will score more much guilt-feeling than punitive or aggressive attitude. 3. The score of guilt-feeling will make significant difference between middle school and high school pupils. 4. There wore found significant difference in the score of guilt-feeling butween both sexes. 5. The score of guilt-feeling will make significant difference between religious school and nonreligious school pupils. 6. The score of guilt-feeling will make significant difference according to home environment and social class. The 500 subjects(260 in four middle school, 240 in four high school in Seoul) was randomly sampled. The scores obtained from investigative instruments of both guilt-feeling and parent' discipline attitude about child in home were statistically computed by pearson's product moment correlation and t-test. The results in this study were following such as : 1. The more acceptive parent's discipline attitude about pupils, the more the guilt-feeling of pupils shows significant positive correlation, while the more punitive or aggressiv, the more negative correlation. 2. Parent's punitive or aggressive discipline attitude showed more significant correlation. 3. The middle school pupils obtained the higher score of guilt-feeling than the high school pupils. 4. The girl pupils obtained the higher score of guiltfeeling than the boy pupils. 5. The score of guilt-feeling made no significant difference between religious school and nonreligious school pupils. 6. The score of guilt-feeling made no significant difference according to home-environment and social class.;인간의 良心발달에 기본적인 要素이며, 道德的 行爲를 이해하는데 필요 불가결한 문제의 하나인 罪意識은, 行動의 決定에 중요한 역할을 한다고 본다. 이러한 罪意識의 형성에 직접적인 효과를 주는 要因으로, 父母의 訓育態度, 性別, 年齡, 宗敎 여부, 그리고 家庭環境 變因에 의해 罪意識은 어떻게 變化되어 가느냐를 보기 위해서 아래와 같은 硏究 問題를 設定했다. 罪意識 형성에 있어서의 중요한 變因으로서 父母의 子女에 대한 訓育態度가 죄의식에 미치는 영향을 硏究함에 있어서 年齡的 差異, 性差, 宗敎와 非 宗敎人間의 差異, 家庭環境에 따른 죄의식의 差등에 관해서 그 영향의 정도와 성질을 調査하려 하였다. 이러한 問題를 해결하기 위해서 서울 시내 4개 중학교중 宗敎系統, 非 宗敎系統, 2개교중 男女 각각 1개교(65명씩)로 하고, 4개 高等學校중 宗敎系統, 非 宗敎係統 2개교중 男女 各各 1개교(60명씩)를 選定했으며, 그 학교의 재학생 모두 500명을 無選標集하여 硏究 對象으로 하였다. 이 調査를 위한 道具로서는 죄의식 調査道具와 家庭環境 調査道具를 사용했으며, 여기에 反應한 結果를 점수로 환산해서 相關 및 t檢證에 의해 統計 處理했다. 그 結果는 父母의 訓育態度가 受容的이면 受容的일수록 학생의 罪意識은 有意한 正的 相關을 나타냈고 嚴格하면 嚴格할 수록 有意한 負的 相關을 나타내었다. 女學生은 男學生보다 일반적으로 罪意識을 더 많이 가지고 있으며, 宗敎系統과 非 宗敎系統 學校 學生間에 있어서의 죄의식 差는 없고, 家庭環境에 있어서 父母의 平均 學歷, 부모의 宗敎, 학생의 宗敎에 있어서의 罪意識 差도 없다.
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