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우리나라 憲法上의 平等權에 관한 硏究

우리나라 憲法上의 平等權에 관한 硏究
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교육대학원 사회과교육전공일반사회교육분야
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
人間은 平等하다. 人類는 완전한 平等의 實現을 具現하려고 努力하여 왔다. 그러나 그 平等의 內容이나 實現의 程度 및 方法은 時代와 場所에 따라 같을 수 없다. 平等의 原理가 憲法上 保障된 것은 市民革命과 立憲主義的 意味의 憲法이 成立된 近代 이후의 일이다. 그러나 平等思想은 이미 古代에서도 存在하였다. 그리이스의 Aristoteles의 正義論과 스토아學派의 思想 및 로마의 法思想에서 구할 수 있다. 中世를 支配한 基督敎의 '神 앞에서의 平等' 도 이러한 平等思想史上 중요한 意義가 있다. 近代憲法의 價値體系로서의 平等의 原則은 新興市民階級의 政治的 解放의 要請에 의하여 在來의 모든 特權階層의 撤廢를 요구하는 하나의 抵抗權的 意味로서 출발하였는데 이는 基督敎에 있어서의 이른바 '神 앞에서의 平等' 으로부터 傳來에 法意識의 憲法化를 意味하였다. 近代國家들의 發展過程에서 이러한 意味의 '神 앞에서의 平等' 은 近代合理主義的 自然法思想의 影響을 받아 神의 地位에 세속적인 法規가 代替하게 되며, 法 앞의 平等原則이 確立되었다. 平等原則의 成文化는 버지니아權利章典과 프랑스人權宣言, 1973年의 프랑스憲法, 1814年의 프랑스憲法, 1831年의 벨기에憲法에서 由來된 것은 歷史的인 事實과 같다. 또한 우리 憲法은 前文에서 "……自由民主的 基本秩序를 더욱 확고히 하여 政治·經濟·社會·文化의 모든 領域에 있어서 各人의 機會를 균등히 하고…… 안으로는 國民生活의 균등한 향상을 기하고"라고 宣言하고 있으며, 憲法 第9條 前段에서는 "모든 國民은 人間으로서의 尊嚴과 價値를 가지며"라 하고 憲法 第10條 第1項에서 "모든 國民은 法 앞에 平等하다. 누구든지 性別·宗敎 또는 社會的 身分에 의하여 政治的 經濟的 社會的 生活의 모든 領域에 있어서 差別을 받지 아니한다"라고 規定하고 있다. 그러나 우리나라의 경우 아직도 民法中에는 現行憲法이 保障하고 있는 男女平等의 原則에 違背되는 條項들이 散在해 있다. 이러한 條項들은 절대적으로 改正이 要求되는 條項들로 앞으로 立法界에서 注視하여야 할 것이다. 憲法에 保障된 權利가 憲法에 근거하여 制定된 다른 法律에서 認定되어 있지 않다면 憲法 精神은 그 實現을 期待할 수 없는 形式的인 것에 不過한 것이다. 法律上 女性의 地位가 男性과 平等하기 위하여는 立法的인 해결이 절대적으로 우선되어야 한다고 생각한다. 基本的인 憲法에 보다 具體的이고 實質的인 男女平等을 具現하고 이를 바탕으로 한 諸 立法措置가 請求되어야 비로서 男女平等이 이루어질 것이라고 본다. ;The thought of man's equality which stemmed from that natural law has come through Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Bentham and Kant. Hobbes said that man was created equal in both physical and mental faculties by nature. Locke argued that as the state of nature was that of equality these exercised the same faculties and that there was nothing so clear as the human being of one and the same genus and class who was favorably born together in nature should be equal without obedience and subordination as far as one person was not placed above another by God. Rousseau said that it was clear that an environmental force alway tended to destroy equality so that it had to be maintained by force of legislation, but to what extent it should be applied in practice was to be ironed out respectively by the promise based on the consideration of maintenance of safety. Bentham said that all men should be counted as one person but no man as more than one person. Kant asserted that the equality of all men by expressing himself clearly in an established form that we should conduct ourselves that we might deal with humanity in our own character and other's the time as an end, not as only a means. All in all, the equality mentioned before the law based on these natural, ethical and religious thoughts of equality was stipulated in the constitution of every modern country including the declaration of human rights in France in 1789. Women throughout the world have a better experience that they have been or is treated unequally, compared with men whether there is a certain defference among them. As such consciousness has gradually increased and widely spread. women of today corne to form the subconsicious power for their social and economic change. Accordingly, the role of women in production and labor should not be the cause of discrimination and inequality only because they are women and the education of children is to undertaken on the responsibility of the whole society and the fathers and mothers. And it is imperative that women should given an equal opportunity to devote themselves to the development of the country, to say nothing of the rise of their position. In case of our country(Korea) unlike the rise of women's position in the western countries there has been a slow pace for modernization in it because of their peculiar position of a good wife and wise mother, their conventional custom and prejudice of prominance of men over women and they have rapidly experienced the social change in a short time. The questions of the way and menas for keeping the equality of the sexes have been risen in various ways with a background of the given social condition of every country, although the article of prohibition of discrimination of the sex is stipulated in the constitution of every country. As to the differentiation of labor condition beside wages they provide for it with the penal rule in the law and in the retributive education, the administrative direction and the disposal of appeal. Nowadays the rapid increase of the number of woman laborors, the betterment of standard of education, length of their service, the increaser of work of the married women, and the g!eater participation of them in not only administrative, but professional position is remarkably wonderful every year. Therefore, the same labor and wage and the desire of equal treatment is increasingly wide. On this occasion the concrete and practical equality of the sexes is to be realized in the constitution that is, the constitutional law on the basis of it. All the measures of legislation are to be established, and then the real equality of the sexes will be achieved and the political; social and economic development will also be accomplished.
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