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Form-focused CLT

Form-focused CLT
Oh, Eun Kyung
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외국어교육특수대학원 TESOL학과
이화여자대학교 외국어교육특수대학원
Laura Eunae Park
Although the washback effect (Thornbury, 1999) has had a significant influence on the Korean EFL context, globalization and advancement in technology has led students and teachers to realize the importance of English communication more and more. Especially for university students, having strong English language proficiency is not only related to academic performance and future career prospects, but it has become a necessity. Many Korean students seem to have clear goals in studying English. They need to speak in order to get good grades in English classes, to graduate from university, to get a secure occupation and to work competently in their jobs. Also, they have more opportunities to meet native speakers in various contexts, and take English classes that help them to express their opinions and make short English presentations related to their major fields. This is a little different from the past when university students simply wanted to be a good English speaker. Now the importance of speaking English fluently, meaningfully and accurately is becoming a part of their lives. Therefore, they need more practical lessons in English which can help them to reach their goals and use the target language more meaningfully. Such needs can be met through the CLT(Communicative Language Teaching) approach which emphasizes the functions, meanings and forms of the target language (Larsen-Freeman, 2000). The target students are university students who are expected to graduate within 1 or 2 years and plan on looking for a job after graduation. They are 20 students in their 20s whose majors are diverse. They have studied English focusing mostly on reading, writing and written grammar for at least 6 to 13 years in public schools. They also admit that they have learned English just for the sole purpose of taking tests, or have not studied it very much if English proficiency is not required for their majors. Their proficiency level is low - high intermediate according to the ACTFL (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages). This means that when they listen and speak in English, they usually rely on frequently used words and phrases and familiar topics. Thus, fluency and accuracy do not consistently last, as it is described in the ACTFL Proficiency guideline 2012. Currently, these students are studying for the TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication) which mainly focuses on reading, grammar and listening. The reason for studying for the TOEIC is that most Korean companies require TOEIC scores as part of the screening process; thus students want to get higher scores in order to find better jobs. The problem, however, is that the TOEIC does not help improve their communication skills very much. Rather, it is targeting on receptive skills such as reading comprehension and listening comprehension skills; however, students need to improve their speaking skills as well. As a result, many Korean students attempt to obtain qualifying scores on the TOEIC, and then hope to learn English for oral communication. Therefore, speaking is the most important skill that needs improvement for these students.
☞ 이 논문은 저자가 원문공개에 동의하지 않은 논문으로, 도서관 내에서만 열람이 가능하며, 인쇄 및 저장은 불가합니다.
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