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舊韓末 基督敎 學校의 一硏究

舊韓末 基督敎 學校의 一硏究
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교육대학원 사회과교육전공역사교육분야
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
This study inquires historical background and the espect of reception of the Christianity which had been received in the late Yi-dynisty, which it corers from 1884 to 1910. And connects it with the Christian mission school's save the nation movement as well, That is the trial of demonstration relating the historic erent at that times that christianty had been contributed closely to the Korean People in the period of restoration of the national rights by means of the save the nation movement which was mainly occured in Christian mission schools. In close relevance to the historic condition of that period, the christianity which was transmited by Western missionaries could be received easliy as a link in the chain of the enlightenment & save the nation movement. In those days, confucianism which had been a nation's guiding spirit for a long time failed to bring any function. So the reception of Western civilization through Christianity was required. Under these domestic circumstances, Western missionaires were able to devoted to their missionary work by the establishment of modern schools. Modern schools which established by these missionaries moulted the former Chinese Style educational system and curriculum. And it became the means of education that delivers the Western educational system, bible, and national science etc. Meanwhile these establishment of mission schools were so stimulated the Korean government itself which was grouping the independence and self-powerfulness and leaders of that times that it made the interest in education reach the high water mark. Consequently private schools which were founded under the influences of missionary's educational work stimulated the Anti-Japanism as dynamics of patriotic, enlighted movement Naturally Christian mission schools took a core role. Curriculum of the Christian mission schools were stressed the effection of the learning by enforcing the experiment and practice which promoted the student's spontaneous motivation of study. But these contents of education differentiated its form starting from Eulsajoyag (乙巳條約). On purpose to develop the Korean people's national consciousness on the basis of Christian religion missionaries lard emphais on training the leaders who were necessary to the nation and society by cultivating the ability. They inspired patriotism and self-consciousness by introducing foreign historics, autobiography of the great man, and by preaching in the chapel. Also they encouged the Korean people who were disappointed in national decay. These subject matters and the idea of education offered the Korean people spiritual basis of rasing the national movement through the education in the period of the loss of national rights. Besides Christians of that times evolved Korean enlightenment with a self-independence senses. These senses of Christian had been grown as a anti-Japanism up to the period of Japnese agression had been strengthen. After 1905 these situation were found in various aspects. Christian against Japanese agression by means of pray for save the nation, dared suicide assassination, and other violent armed contlict as well. At the same time the education of Christian mission school were contributed to national consciousness. So, the incident of Japanese frag (日章旗事件), the refusal of using the text of the education authorities the erasion of entering the public schools came after. Meanwhile many leaders who had the idea that there is no way to save the nation expect education established schools. And these leaders are Christian. Upon these national resistance against Japanese rule, Japanese imperialism suppress them ; as an against independence armies ( 義 兵 ) armed intervention and 'Private School Law'(私立校令) against patriotic enlightenment movement. On the other hand "Private School Law" in 1908 approved the Christian mission school's extraterritorial rights. So they guaranteed their religions education. Unfortunately (統監府), guarantee for Christian mission schools religions education against of the "Private school law" is that in fact they revealed their not only agression but conciliatory policy. After all they planed to break up the private Education system. In these days anti Japanism which was taken a leading part by Christian mission school was developed in the north west area of Korea (關西地方) against them Japan fabricated event of one hundred and five persons (105) on purpose of supression for school of that area which were run by Christian and missionaries. The fabricated event of one hundred and five persons was the evidence that christian school's lead the anti-Japanism and enormoceous obstruction against colonizing Korea by Japan and also it testify that Christian mission school's save-the-nation movement are so intense. After all I can assert that it should be readjusted that general view point which private schools leaded the save the nation movement. Because of the fact that leaders who had been influenced by educational idea of christian mission school established the private school, and they played an active part as a leading position in the period of National movement against the Japanese rule, we can safely say that Christian mission schools are the main stream of save-the-nation movement through the education.;本稿는 1884年부터 1910年에 이르는 이른 바 舊韓末 時期에 있어서 基督敎가 이 땅에 受容케 된 歷史的 背景과 그 受容樣態를 基督敎學校의 敎育救國運動과 결부하면서 考察한 것이다 즉 基督敎가 韓民族의 國權回復運動期에 밀접하게 寄與하였다는 것을 基督敎學校의 敎育救國運動을 통하여 당시의 歷史性에 비추어 論證하고자 시도해 본 것이다. 舊韓末 西洋 宣敎師에 依하여 傳來된 基督敎는 당시의 歷史的 狀況과 밀접한 관련속에서 開化運動과 救國運動의 일환으로 쉽게 受容될 수 있었다. 당시 韓國은 오랫동안 國家의 指導理念이 되어 오던 儒敎思想이 그 기능을 喪失하였으므로 基督敎를 통한 西歐文明의 受容을 必要로 하였던 것이다. 이러한 國內的 狀況속에서 西洋 宣敎師들은 近代式學校 設立을 통한 宣敎事業에 專念할 수 있었다. 이들에 依해 設立된 近代學校는 從來의 中國式 敎育 制度와 敎育內容을 脫皮하게 하였고, 西歐式의 學制와 聖經과 自然科學 등을 비롯한 新學問을 傳達하는 敎育機關이 되었다. 한편 이러한 基督敎學校의 設立은 自主自强을 摸索하고 있던 政府自體와 先覺者들을 자극시켜, 國內에 敎育熱의 高調를 보게 하였다. 宣敎師들의 敎育事業의 影響下에 設立된 民立私學들은 곧 愛國啓蒙運動의 原動力으로써 排日思想을 鼓吹하였던 바 그 核心的 役割을 擔當한 것이 바로 基督敎學校라 할 수 있다. 基督敎學校의 교과과정은 從來의 非實用的 非實踐的인 儒學을 지양하였고, 學生들의 自發的 學習動機를 誘發시키는 實驗과 實習을 實施함으로써 學習의 效果를 높일 수 있다. 그러나 이러한 敎育內容은 乙巳條約을 기점으로하여 그 形態를 달리 하였다. 宣敎師들은 基督敎精神을 바탕으로 하여 韓民族의 民族意識을 啓發시키려는 생각으로, 內修外學에 依한 實力養成을 指標로하여 國家 社會에 必要한 指導者 養成에 注力하게 되었다. 이에 그들은 學校와 敎會를 통한 說敎와, 外國의 歷史書籍, 偉人傳 등을 소개하여 愛國心과 自我意識을 高揚시켰고, 또한 亡國의 失意속에 빠져있던 韓民族에게 希望과 勇氣를 주었던 것이다. 이러한 敎育內容과 敎育理念은 主權喪失期에 敎育救國運動을 일으킬 수 있는 精神的 基盤을 제공하였다. 한편 初代 基督敎人들은 自主獨立意識을 가지고 韓國의 開化運動을 展開하고 있었다. 基督敎人들의 이러한 意識은, 日帝의 侵略이 加速되는 時期에 이르러 抗日意識으로 成長되어 1905年以後 여러 방면에서 나타나고 있었다. 基督敎徒들은 救國祈禱, 自殺, 暗殺, 또는 武力行使까지도 不司하는 과감성으로 激烈하게 抗日運動을 展開 하였던 것이다. 이와 함께 基督敎學校 敎育은 民族的 自覺에 寄與하여 日章旗事件, 學部의 敎科書使用 拒否, 官立學校 入學 忌避現狀으로 나타나게 되었다. 또 한편으로는 救國의 길은 오직 敎育밖에 없다는 理念下에 많은 先覺者들이 學校를 設立하였는데 이들이 대부분 基督敎人이었다. 이러한 民族의 抗日運動에 대해서 日帝는 義兵活動에는 武力으로, 愛國啓蒙運動에는 私立學校令, 學會令 등으로 强壓하였다. 그러나 1908年의 私立學校令에서 治外法權을 認定받은 基督敎學校는 宗敎敎育을 保障받게 되었다. 그러나 統監府가 一般私立學校에 대해서는 私立學校令을 嚴重히 適用하면서도, 基督敎學校에 대해서는 宗敎敎育을 保障한 것은 사실상 저들의 탄압과 회유의 兩面性을 나타낸 것으로 결국은 私立敎育機關의 分列을 꾀하였던 것이었다. 이때 基督敎學校를 중심으로 한 抗日意識은 關西地方에서 활발히 展開되었다. 이에 日本은 關西地方의 基督敎徒와 宣敎師들이 經營하는 學校를 탄압하려는 目的하에 105人事件을 捏造하였다. 日帝의 105人 捏造事件은 國權喪失期에 基督敎學校가 抗日運動을 精神的으로 이끌어 日帝의 韓國 植民地化에 커다란 장애물이 되었다는 것과, 한편으로는 基督敎學校의 敎育救國運動이 얼마나 强烈하였나를 알려 주는 證據가 된다고도 하겠다. 따라서 敎育救國運動이 民族私學에 依해 主導되었다는 從來의 通念에 시정을 加해야 할 것 같다. 基督敎學校의 敎育理念下에 影響을 받은 先覺者들이 民立私學을 設立하였다는 것과, 이들이 抗日運動期에 指導的 立場에서 활약하였다는 것을 볼 때, 오히려 敎育救國運動의 本流는 基督敎學校라 보아야 하겠기 때문이다.
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