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Identification of potential plantar ulceration among diabetes patients using plantar soft tissue stiffness
- Identification of potential plantar ulceration among diabetes patients using plantar soft tissue stiffness
- Teoh, Jee Chin; Lee, Taeyong
- Ewha Authors
- SCOPUS Author ID
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS
- JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS vol. 103
- Diabetic ulcer; Plantar tissue stiffness; Indentation; Body mass index; HbA1c
- SCIE; SCOPUS
- Document Type
- This study investigates the relationship between plantar tissue stiffness and selected parameters, including age, diabetes mellitus (DM) duration, body mass index (BMI), and HbA(1c) level. 70 diabetes patients with no foot problems were recruited. The plantar soft tissue at the 2nd sub-metatarsal head (MTH) pad was examined using the novel indentation system developed. The stiffness constant, K, was used to describe the tissue stiffness. The four factors (age, DM duration, BMI, and HbA(1c) level) were plotted against the plantar tissue stiffness. The scatter plots revealed that a higher plantar tissue stiffness was usually associated with (1) BMI>25 kgm(-2), (2) HbA(1c) score >10% (86 mmol/mol), and (3) DM duration >10 years. The three risk criteria were further evaluated using the binary classification test. The predictions were reported to be fairly accurate and reliable in detecting stiffened tissues. The study has successfully identified the strong association of BMI, HbA(1c), and DM duration with the plantar tissue properties. Special attention should be given to the high risk group with BMI>25 kgm(-2), HbA(1c) score >10% (86 mmol/mol), and DM duration >10 years. The high diagnostic odds ratio attained suggests its potential usefulness in helping clinicians to diagnose diabetic foot more efficiently.
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