Metalloporphyrinoids are utilized as efficient sensitizers and catalysts in photosynthesis and the reverse reaction that is respiration. Because metalloporphyrinoids show strong absorption in the visible region and redox active, metalloporphyrinoids are also suited as photoredox catalysts for photo-driven redox reactions using solar energy. In particular, metalloporphyrins are utilized as pivotal components to mimic the structure and function of the photosynthetic reaction center. Metalloporphyrins are used as photoredox catalysts for hydrogen evolution from electron and proton sources combining hydrogen evolution catalysts. Metalloporphyrins also act as thermal redox catalysts for photocatalytic reduction of CO2 with photoredox catalysts. Metalloporphyrins are also used as dual catalysts for a photoredox catalyst for oxygenation of substrates with H2O and a redox catalyst for O-2 reduction when dioxygen is used as a two-electron oxidant and H2O as an oxygen source, both of which are the greenest reactants. Free base porphyrins can also be employed as promising photoredox catalysts for C-C bond formation reactions.