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Effect of Cognitive Reserve on Risk of Cognitive Impairment and Recovery After Stroke The KOSCO Study
- Effect of Cognitive Reserve on Risk of Cognitive Impairment and Recovery After Stroke The KOSCO Study
- Shin, Minyoung; Sohn, Min Kyun; Lee, Jongmin; Kim, Deog Young; Lee, Sam-Gyu; Shin, Yong-Il; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Lee, Yang-Soo; Joo, Min Cheol; Han, Eun Young; Han, Junhee; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Chang, Won Hyuk; Shin, Min A.; Choi, Ji Yoo; Kang, Sung Hyun; Kim, Youngtaek; Kim, Yun-Hee
- Ewha Authors
- SCOPUS Author ID
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- STROKE vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 99 - 107
- cognitive dysfunction; cognitive reserve; education; longitudinal studies; occupation; risk factors; stroke
- LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS &
- SCI; SCIE; SCOPUS
- Document Type
- Background and Purpose- The theory of cognitive reserve (CR) was introduced to account for individual differences in the clinical manifestation of neuropathology. This study investigated whether CR has a modulating effect on cognitive impairment and recovery after stroke. Methods- This study is an interim analysis of the Korean Stroke Cohort for Functioning and Rehabilitation. A total of 7459 patients with first-ever stroke were included for analysis. Education, occupation, and composite CR scores derived from those 2 variables were used as CR proxies. Scores from the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination analyzed for 30 months after stroke onset were analyzed. Results- Lower CR increased the risk of cognitive impairment after stroke. The odds ratio was 1.89 (95% CI, 1.64-2.19) in patients with secondary education and 2.42 (95% CI, 2.03-2.90) in patients with primary education compared with patients with higher education. The odds ratio was 1.48 (95% CI, 1.23-1.98) in patients with a skilled manual occupation and 2.01 (95% CI, 1.42-2.83) in patients with a nonskilled manual occupation compared with patients with a managerial or professional occupation. In the multilevel model analysis, the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination total score increased during the first 3 months (1.93 points per month) and then plateaued (0.02 point per month). The slopes were moderated by the level of education, occupation, and composite CR score: the higher the level of education, occupation, or CR score, the faster the recovery. In the older adult group, the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination scores showed a long-term decline that was moderated by education level. Conclusions- Education and occupation can buffer an individual against cognitive impairment caused by stroke and promote rapid cognitive recovery early after stroke. In addition, higher education minimizes long-term cognitive decline after stroke, especially in older patients.
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