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Chemoradiation-Induced Alteration of Programmed Death-Ligand 1 and CD8+ Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Identified Patients With Poor Prognosis in Rectal Cancer: A Matched Comparison Analysis
- Chemoradiation-Induced Alteration of Programmed Death-Ligand 1 and CD8+ Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Identified Patients With Poor Prognosis in Rectal Cancer: A Matched Comparison Analysis
- Lim Y.J.; Koh J.; Kim S.; Jeon S.-R.; Chie E.K.; Kim K.; Kang G.H.; Han S.-W.; Kim T.-Y.; Jeong S.-Y.; Park K.J.; Wu H.-G.
- Ewha Authors
- SCOPUS Author ID
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
- vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 1216 - 1224
- Elsevier Inc.
- SCI; SCIE; SCOPUS
- Purpose To evaluate chemoradiotherapy (CRT)-induced changes in the expression levels of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and prognostic associations in rectal cancer. Methods and Materials We performed a paired analysis using pre-CRT biopsies and the corresponding post-CRT resected tissues of 123 rectal cancer patients undergoing preoperative CRT followed by surgery between 2005 and 2012. Immunohistochemistry of PD-L1 and CD8 was analyzed for the specimens. Results The expression levels of PD-L1 and density of CD8+ TILs increased after CRT (P<.001 for both). With cutoffs using each median value, sustained higher expression of PD-L1 at pre- and post-CRT (high-to-high) was associated with less increase in the density of CD8+ TILs (P=.020). Patients representing sustained high-to-high PD-L1 expression had poorer overall survival and disease-free interval on univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis (P=.018 and.029, respectively), with inferior disease-free interval in low-to-low density CD8+ TILs (P=.010). On multivariate analysis, 2 subgroups with high baseline PD-L1 expression level, the high-to-low and high-to-high alterations, showed worse overall survival (hazard ratio 8.34, 95% confidence interval 1.85-37.53 and hazard ratio 11.03, 95% confidence interval 2.33-52.29, respectively), with the highest mortality risk observed in the high-to-high group. Conclusions This study verified the CRT-induced immunologic shift toward increases in PD-L1 expression and density of CD8+ TILs in rectal cancer patients. The alteration profiles of checkpoint-related molecules identified the patients with poor prognosis, suggesting potential candidates who can benefit from combining CRT and checkpoint inhibitors. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.
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