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FlexPro MD, a Mixture of Krill Oil, Astaxanthin, and Hyaluronic Acid, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production Through Inhibition of NF-kappa B
- FlexPro MD, a Mixture of Krill Oil, Astaxanthin, and Hyaluronic Acid, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production Through Inhibition of NF-kappa B
- Park, Doo Ri; Ko, Ryeojin; Kwon, Suk Hyung; Min, Bokkee; Yun, Seong Ho; Kim, Manh Heun; Minatelli, John; Hill, Stephen; Lee, Soo Young
- Ewha Authors
- SCOPUS Author ID
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD
- 1096-620X; 1557-7600
- vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1196 - 1203
- astaxanthin; cytokines; NF-kappa B
- MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC
- SCI; SCIE; SCOPUS; KCI
- FlexPro MD (R) (FP-MD), a novel multi-ingredient dietary supplement formulation, has been demonstrated to relieve knee joint pain in humans. However, the mechanisms of action responsible for the activity of FP-MD have not been elucidated. In this study, we show the anti-inflammatory effects of FP-MD in RAW264.7 macrophage cells and mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). FP-MD significantly inhibited the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and IL-1 beta. In contrast, it elevated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. FP-MD markedly reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) p65 and inhibitor of kappa B-alpha (I kappa B-alpha). Importantly, the anti-inflammatory effects of FP-MD were demonstrated in mice with LPS-induced inflammatory arthritis in which FP-MD significantly reduced the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory markers. Thus, this study suggests that FP-MD has anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-kappa B that may offer a molecular basis for its pain relief property.
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