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Phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with heavy metals and TNT using four plant species
- Phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with heavy metals and TNT using four plant species
- Lee I.; Baek K.; Kim H.; Kim S.; Kim J.; Kwon Y.; Chang Y.; Bae B.
- Ewha Authors
- SCOPUS Author ID
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering
- vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 2039 - 2045
- SCI; SCIE; SCOPUS
- We investigated the germination, growth rates and uptake of contaminants of four plant species, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Indian mallow (Abutilon avicennae) and Indian jointvetch (Aeschynomene indica), grown in soil contaminated with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). These contaminants are typically found at shooting ranges. Experiments were carried out over 180 days using both single plant cultures and cultures containing an equal mix of the 4 plant species. Germination rates differed among the species in single culture (92% for H. annuus, 84% for E. crusgalli, 48% for A. avicennae and 38% Ae. indica). In the 4-plant mix culture, < 20% of seeds germinated for all 4 species. E. crusgalli and H. annuus grew slightly faster in the four-plant mix culture than in single culture, whereas A. avicennae and Ae. indica grew much slower in the 4-plant mix culture. In both single and 4-plant mix cultures, Cd concentrations in the roots of A. avicennae and E. crusgalliwere high, and Pb concentrations were high in A. avicennae and H. annuus. Cd and Pb concentrations in shoots were low to negligible in both treatment cultures for all species, except E. crusgalli in the 4-plant mix culture. The concentrations of TNT and its metabolites, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT) were high in H. annuus, Ae. indica and A. avicennae. Total Cd removal from soil differed among species, with E. crusgalliremoving the most (50.1%) followed by H. annuus(41.3%), Ae. indica(41.1%) and A. avicennae(33.3%). The four-plant mix removed more Cd (25.8%) than a no-plant control (12.9%). Pb removal was negligible for all plant species. All plant species rapidly removed TNT and its metabolites, regardless of whether the culture was single or mixed. From in these results, we conclude that a phytoremediation for the removal of heavy metals and TNT from contaminated soils should use a single plant species rather than a mixture of several plants. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
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