Cross sections for e+p charged current deep inelastic scattering at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV have been determined with an integrated luminosity of 60.9 pb-1 collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The differential cross sections dσ/dQ2, dσ/dx and dσ/dy for Q2 > 200 GeV2 are presented. In addition, d2σ/dxdQ2 has been measured in the kinematic range 280 GeV2 < Q2 < 17 000 GeV2 and 0.008 < x < 0.42. The predictions of the Standard Model agree well with the measured cross sections. The mass of the W boson propagator is determined to be MW = 78.9 ± 2.0 (stat.) ± 1.8 (syst.) -1.8 +2.0 (PDF) GeV from a fit to dσ/dQ2. The chiral structure of the Standard Model is also investigated in terms of the (1-y)2 dependence of the double-differential cross section. The structure-function F2 CC has been extracted by combining the measurements presented here with previous ZEUS results from e-p scattering, extending the measurement obtained in a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment to a significantly higher Q2 region.