The production rates and substructure of jets have been studied in charged current deep inelastic e+p scattering for Q2 > 200 GeV2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 110.5 pb-1. Inclusive jet cross sections are presented for jets with transverse energies ET jet > 14 GeV and pseudorapidities in the range -1 < ηjet < 2. Dijet cross sections are presented for events with a jet having ET jet > 14 GeV and a second jet having ET jet > 5 GeV. Measurements of the mean subjet multiplicity, 〈ηsbj〉, of the inclusive jet sample are presented. Predictions based on parton-shower Monte Carlo models and next-to-leading-order QCD calculations are compared to the measurements. The value of αs (MZ), determined from 〈ηsbj〉 at ycut = 10-2 for jets with 25 < ET jet < 119 GeV, is α s (MZ) = 0.1202 ± 0.0052 (stat.) -0.0019 +0.0060 (syst.)-0.0053 +0.0065 (th.). The mean subjet multiplicity as a function of Q 2 is found to be consistent with that measured in NC DIS.