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Comparison in Use of the 9-Point Hedonic Scale between Americans, Chinese, Koreans, and Thai

Comparison in Use of the 9-Point Hedonic Scale between Americans, Chinese, Koreans, and Thai
Yeh L.L.Kim K.O.Chompreeda P.Rimkeeree H.Yau N.J.N.Lundahl D.S.
Ewha Authors
Issue Date
Journal Title
Food Quality and Preference
0950-3293JCR Link
Food Quality and Preference vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 413 - 419
Document Type
Understanding cross-cultural sensory acceptance differences are essential for developing successful products for international markets. The most common scale for acceptance testing is the 9-point hedonic scale that was developed in the United States (US) by Food Technology, 11, 9-14. The objectives of this research were to compare the usage of the 9-point hedonic scale between American, Korean, Chinese and Thai consumers, as well as to examine if there were significant differences in preference between consumers of the same culture residing in the US and their country of origin. A total of 575 respondents were recruited from eight respondent cells including two from the US and six from three Asian ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, and Thai) with two locations (residing in United States and their country of origin). All respondents evaluated sample pairs using 9-point hedonic scales translated directly from English into their respective languages. Each respondent evaluated various foods on the 9-point hedonic scale and chose the most preferred among sample pairs. Food samples were selected to cover the full range of hedonic ratings for each culture. Results indicate that Chinese, Korean, and Thai respondents use the 9-point hedonic scale differently from American respondents, irrespective of residency in the US or length of stay. These ethnic groups use a smaller range of the 9-point hedonic scale than Americans. Moreover, there were no significant differences in food preferences for Thai and Korea consumers residing in the US or their native countries. Observed differences in food preferences among Chinese residing in the US vs. Taiwan were possibly attributed to the diverse sampling of Chinese selected in the US that were not all representative of Chinese consumers from Taiwan. Additionally, length of stay in the US did not significantly affect food preference among these ethnic groups.
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