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Multiple Time-Scale Monitoring to Address Dynamic Seasonality and Storm Pulses of Stream Water Quality in Mountainous Watersheds

Title
Multiple Time-Scale Monitoring to Address Dynamic Seasonality and Storm Pulses of Stream Water Quality in Mountainous Watersheds
Authors
Lee, Hyun-JuChun, Kun-WooShope, Christopher L.Park, Ji-Hyung
Ewha Authors
박지형
SCOPUS Author ID
박지형scopus
Issue Date
2015
Journal Title
WATER
ISSN
2073-4441JCR Link
Citation
vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 6117 - 6138
Keywords
dissolved organic carbonheadwater streamsmonsoon rainfallmountainous watershedsparticulate organic carbonstream water qualitysuspended sedimentturbidity
Publisher
MDPI AG
Indexed
SCIE; SCOPUS WOS scopus
Abstract
Rainfall variability and extreme events can amplify the seasonality and storm pulses of stream water chemistry in mountainous watersheds under monsoon climates. To establish a monitoring program optimized for identifying potential risks to stream water quality arising from rainfall variability and extremes, we examined water chemistry data collected on different timescales. At a small forested watershed, bi-weekly sampling lasted over two years, in comparison to three other biweekly sampling sites. In addition, high-frequency continuous measurements of pH, electrical conductivity, and turbidity were conducted in tandem with automatic water sampling at 2 h intervals during eight rainfall events. Biweekly monitoring showed that during the summer monsoon period, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), and dissolved ion concentrations generally decreased, but total suspended solids (TSS) slightly increased. A noticeable variation from the usual seasonal pattern was that DO levels substantially decreased during an extended drought. Bi-hourly storm event samplings exhibited large changes in the concentrations of TSS and particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC; DOC) during intense rainfall events. However, extreme fluctuations in sediment export during discharge peaks could be detected only by turbidity measurements at 5 min intervals. Concomitant measurements during rainfall events established empirical relationships between turbidity and TSS or POC. These results suggest that routine monitoring based on weekly to monthly sampling is valid only in addressing general seasonal patterns or long-lasting phenomena such as drought effects. We propose an adaptive monitoring scheme that combines routine monitoring for general seasonal patterns and high-frequency instrumental measurements of water quality components exhibiting rapid responses pulsing during intense rainfall events.
DOI
10.3390/w7116117
Appears in Collections:
엘텍공과대학 > 환경공학전공 > Journal papers
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