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Use of Consumer Acceptability as a Tool to Determine the Level of Sodium Reduction: A Case Study on Beef Soup Substituted With Potassium Chloride and Soy-Sauce Odor
- Use of Consumer Acceptability as a Tool to Determine the Level of Sodium Reduction: A Case Study on Beef Soup Substituted With Potassium Chloride and Soy-Sauce Odor
- Lee, Cho Long; Lee, Soh Min; Kim, Kwang-Ok
- Ewha Authors
- 김광옥; 이소민
- SCOPUS Author ID
- 김광옥; 이소민
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE
- 0022-1147; 1750-3841
- vol. 80, no. 11, pp. S2570 - S2577
- consumer acceptability; consumer rejection threshold (CRT); potassium chloride; salty-congruent odor; sodium reduction
- SCI; SCIE; SCOPUS
- In this study, consumer acceptability was considered as a tool of reducing sodium rather than just using it as a final examination of the successfulness of the substitution. This study consisted of 4 experimental steps. First, by gradually reducing the concentrations of NaCl, consumer rejection threshold (CRT) of NaCl in beef soup was examined. Then, the amount of KCl that can increase preference was examined in 2 low sodium beef soups, with sodium concentrations slightly above or below the CRT. Relative saltiness of various KCl and NaCl/KCl mixtures were also measured. Finally, consumers evaluated acceptability and intensities of sensory characteristics for 9 beef soup samples that differed with respect to NaCl content and/or KCl content with/without addition of salty-congruent odor (soy-sauce odor). The results showed that in the "above CRT" system, consumer acceptability as well as sensory profile of low sodium beef soup substituted using KCl had similar profile to the control although saltiness was not fully recovered, whereas in the below CRT system, consumer acceptability was not recovered using KCl solely as a substitute. Potential of using salty-congruent odor as a final touch to induce salty taste was observed; however, the results inferred the importance of having almost no artificialness in the odor and having harmony with the final product when using it as a strategy to substitute sodium. Overall, the results of the study implied the importance of considering consumer acceptability when approaching sodium reduction to better understand the potentials of the sodium substitutes and salty-congruent odor.
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