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Optical and surface probe investigation of secondary phases in Cu2ZnSnS4 films grown by electrochemical deposition
- Optical and surface probe investigation of secondary phases in Cu2ZnSnS4 films grown by electrochemical deposition
- Kim, Gee Yeong; Jo, William; Lee, Kee Doo; Choi, Hee-Su; Kim, Jin Young; Shin, Hae-Young; Trang Thi Thu Nguyen; Yoon, Seokhyun; Joo, Beom Soo; Gu, Minseon; Han, Moonsup
- Ewha Authors
- 조윌렴; 윤석현
- SCOPUS Author ID
- 조윌렴; 윤석현
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- SOLAR ENERGY MATERIALS AND SOLAR CELLS
- 0927-0248; 1879-3398
- vol. 139, pp. 10 - 18
- Cu2ZnSnS4; Electrochemical deposition; Work function; Secondary phases; Kelvin probe force microscopy; Raman scattering spectroscopy
- ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
- SCI; SCIE; SCOPUS
- Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) films were grown by electrochemical deposition, and we measured the work function of the as-grown and of the KCN-etched CZTS surfaces by using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy with incident laser wavelengths of 488.0 and 632.8 nm, respectively, and the results indicate that a secondary phase formed at different depths. The KPFM measurements can discriminate phase uniformity at the nano-scale. Secondary phases, such as Cu2-xS (0<x< 1), ZnS, and MoS2, were identified on the as-grown surface while Cu2-xS was removed from the KCN-etched surface. The KCN-etched CZTS absorption layer was measured to have a 5.0% conversion efficiency. Owing to the low cost of electrochemical deposition, it is desirable to obtain high tailored CZTS films can be obtained with the robust surface characteristics of a uniform work function with a single phase. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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