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Quantum messages with signatures forgeable in arbitrated quantum signature schemes
- Quantum messages with signatures forgeable in arbitrated quantum signature schemes
- Kim, Taewan; Choi, Jeong Woon; Jho, Nam-Su; Lee, Soojoon
- Ewha Authors
- SCOPUS Author ID
- Issue Date
- Journal Title
- PHYSICA SCRIPTA
- 0031-8949; 1402-4896
- vol. 90, no. 2
- arbitrated quantum signature; forgeable quantum message; random rotation; quantum encryption
- IOP PUBLISHING LTD
- SCI; SCIE; SCOPUS
- Even though a method to perfectly sign quantum messages has not been known, the arbitrated quantum signature scheme has been considered as one of the good candidates. However, its forgery problem has been an obstacle to the scheme becoming a successful method. In this paper, we consider one situation, which is slightly different from the forgery problem, that we use to check whether at least one quantum message with signature can be forged in a given scheme, although all the messages cannot be forged. If there are only a finite number of forgeable quantum messages in the scheme, then the scheme can be secured against the forgery attack by not sending forgeable quantum messages, and so our situation does not directly imply that we check whether the scheme is secure against the attack. However, if users run a given scheme without any consideration of forgeable quantum messages, then a sender might transmit such forgeable messages to a receiver and in such a case an attacker can forge the messages if the attacker knows them. Thus it is important and necessary to look into forgeable quantum messages. We show here that there always exists such a forgeable quantum message-signature pair for every known scheme with quantum encryption and rotation, and numerically show that there are no forgeable quantum message-signature pairs that exist in an arbitrated quantum signature scheme.
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