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The Relations of Acculturative Stress, Narcissism, and Social Network Service (SNS) Overuse among Korean International Students

Title
The Relations of Acculturative Stress, Narcissism, and Social Network Service (SNS) Overuse among Korean International Students
Other Titles
영어권 한인 유학생의 병리적 자기애가 문화적응스트레스와 SNS 중독 경향성에 미치는 매개효과
Authors
김소희
Issue Date
2016
Department/Major
교육대학원 상담심리전공
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
오인수
Abstract
이 연구는 영어권 나라에서 생활 중인 한국인 유학생들을 대상으로 문화적응스트레스와 병리적 자기애, 그리고 SNS중독 경향성(Facebook을 사용)의 관계를 탐색하였다. 문화적응스트레스가 한국인 유학생의 병리적 자기애에 영향을 미치는 선행연구는 많지 않은 편이다. 연구자는 자기애 중에서 병리적 자기애의 자기웅대성과 자기취약성 두 유형이 문화적응 스트레스와 SNS 중독 경향성에 영향을 미칠 것으로 예측하였다. 특히, 문화적응스트레스가 SNS중독 경향성을 높이는 관계에서 병리적 자기애가 매개할 것을 가정하고 연구를 진행하였다. 이를 위해 영어권 나라에서 생활 중인 한국인 유학생 106명에게 온라인 설문을 통해 자료를 수집하였다. 수집된 자료는 t-검증과 일원변량분석 및 일련의 회귀분석을 사용한 매개효과 검증을 통해 분석하였다. 연구의 결과를 정리하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 여자가 남자보다 자기 취약성이 높았고, 둘째, 영어구사력이 낮은 집단은 은 높은 문화적응스트레스를 보였다. 셋째, 미혼 집단이 기혼 집단 보다 자기 웅대성이 높았다. 넷째, 종교가 없는 사람이 종교가 있는 사람보다 자기 취약성이 높았다. 다섯째, 현재 학업상태의 경우 학사 집단이 박사 집단 보다 자기 웅대성이 높았다. 상관분석결과, 자기취약성과 다른 연구변인들 간의 상관이 현저히 높게 나타났다. 단순회귀분석결과, 문화적응스트레스는 SNS중독경향성에 영향을 미치고, 병리적 자기애 중 자기취약성만이 SNS중독경향성에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 병리적 자기애의 매개 역할을 알아보기 위해 위계적 회귀분석을 실시 한 결과, 병리적 자기애 중 자기취약성만이 문화적응스트레스와 SNS중독경향성 사이에서 완전 매개 역할을 하는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구의 결과를 통해 문화적응스트레스가 병리적 자기애 중 자기취약성 요소를 높일 수 있고 이로 인해 SNS중독경향성을 높일 수 있음을 확인 할 수 있었다. 심리사회적으로 위축된 경우, 사람과 사람간의 의사소통이 아닌 SNS를 이용하여 의사소통을 하는 경우, 특히 이러한 소통이 지나칠 경우에는 중독경향성으로 나타날 수 있음을 시사한다. 개인이 생각하는 한 개인이 자신의 기준에 비추어 성공적인 문화적응을 하지 못할 경우, 자기 자신을 사회적으로 철수하여 즉, 표출되지 못한 적응스트레스로 자신에 대한 적개심을 내사하기 때문에 인지적, 정서적 조절에 어려움을 겪을 수 있다. 특히 이러한 스트레스 요인으로 인해 병리적 자기애 성향이 높아진 개인은 추가적으로 문화적응스트레스를 받고 쌓인 감정과 생각들을 적절하게 표출하지 못할 수 있다. 이때, 새로운 문화적 환경, 외부에서 느끼는 위협적 요소들을 피해 면대면 의사소통이 아닌 온라인상의 의사소통으로 자신의 흔들리는 자존감을 보호하려고 할 가능성이 있다. 자기애적 취약성이 높아진 개인은 자신의 취약성을 내세워 다른 사람들에게 끊임없는 인정과 찬사를 원하고, 특별한 대우를 받지 못하면 분노가 더 일어날 수 있다. 이들은 자신의 가치감 또는 자아존중감을 타인과의 비교를 통해 형성하기 보다는 자신만의 고유한 내적 기준에 맞춰 형성하고 유지하는 성향이 높을 수 있다. 이렇게 이미 적응스트레스가 내재화된 상태로 SNS를 이용하면서 자신의 감정을 표출하는 방식을 계속 유지한다면, 중독경향성을 증가시켜 이는 자기 자신만을 달래는 퇴행적인 방식으로 개인의 정신건강에 부정적인 영향을 미칠 것으로 추론할 수 있다. 또한, 온라인상에서만 자신의 상태에 “좋아요”의 피드백 또는 관심을 사게 하는 커뮤니케이션에 대해 만족하게 된다면, 비적응적인 자기애를 유지하게 될 것이다. 물론, 온라인 상에서의 커뮤니케이션의 장점을 잘 활용한다면 적정한 수준의 인정욕구는 충족되겠지만, 건강한 자신감, 자기애를 형성하는데 있어, SNS의 지나친 활용은 심리적 손해로 작용할 수 있다. 문화 적응 중에 있는 유학생들은 대인-관계적 의사소통과 상호작용의 수단을 제공하는 Facebook을 사용하여 감정 관리와 조절에 영향을 받을 것이다. Saad(2012)에 따르면, SNS는 사회가 규정한 고정규범, 가치관을 지키도록 요구하지 않기 때문에, 즉 타인에 대한 배려 없이도 자신이 원하는 무언가를 표현할 수 있는 자유를 제공하기 때문에, 과장된 자기를 초래하고 부풀려진 자아 가치감을 형성하게 한다. 이러한 부적응적인 정서조절방식은 건강한 문화적응을 경험하기보다, 오히려 문화적응스트레스를 더 증가시키고 병리적인 자기애를 더욱 촉진 시킬 수 있다고 예측된다. 문화적응스트레스를 받고 있는 상황에서 자신의 욕구가 충족되지 못하거나 표현을 억누르게 되면 SNS의 의존으로 보상경험을 할 가능성이 높다. SNS가 보상기제로 작용하게 되면, 현실에 충족되지 못한 욕구들을 채우려는 열망이 SNS상의 프로필 사진 또는 상태의 업데이트를 통해 자신만을 위한 칭찬과 인정을 요구하는 과정에서 병리적 자기애를 증가시키는 요인으로 작용할 수도 있다. Saad(2012)는 이러한 성향때문에 사용자들에게 자기 자신을 단장하고, 드러내고, 홍보하는 것에 지나친 시간을 투자하게 되는 문제점을 지적한 바 있다. 이러한 보상욕구를 SNS로 채우려기 하기 보다는 대학 내 상담센터에 도움을 요청하여 자신의 취약점이 무엇인지 1:1 개인 상담으로 알아가는 것이 보다 효과적일 것이다. 또한 상담자는 문화적응스트레스를 겪으며 지나치게 SNS에 몰두하는 학생의 경우 이들의 내현적 자기애 수준을 파악하여 상담 접근을 시도하는 것이 필요할 것이다. 상담자는 내담자가 가지고 있는 취약한 자기상을 건강한 자기상으로 개선될 수 있도록, 자기가치를 타인과의 비교보다는 자신의 내적 기준으로 평가를 유도하거나, 역기능적 정서를 감소시키고, 공감능력을 향상시키는 것이 필요할 것이다.;As social networking sites usage has become prevalent among adults in various age, there has been consistent interest in the social and psychological effects of the SNS. As commented by many researchers, it is notable to recognize that international students undergo cultural adaptation and face a challenge in establishing their lives at the new and unfamiliar environment. While adapting to the new culture, international students undergo acculturative stress if they feel obliged to choose one culture over the other. Although the level of acculturative stress may vary from each other, it might pose a challenge to those who have higher narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability in order to make self-affirmation in the new host culture. Due to feelings of superiority and contingent self-esteem, narcissistically grandiose and vulnerable individuals may use Internet as a coping method to express their discrepant expectations caused by acculturative stress. If excessive, the use of Internet becomes pathological and leads to SNS addiction, which entails psychological and mental health problems. Researcher considered use of Internet to release repressed thoughts and emotions as maladapative cognitive, emotional regulation because it hinders international students from forming healthy interpersonal relationships and building positive relationships to environment. Present study aims to investigate the mediating effect of pathological narcissism in between acculturative stress and addiction proneness to SNS. Pathological narcissism is divided into subtypes: narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability. Although numerous studies on pathological narcissism and SNS exist; however, studies on how acculturation and pathological narcissism integrate and influence on addiction proneness to SNS are still in its early stage. The participants of 106 Korean adults in English-speaking country were recruited through Facebook: they opted to complete the online survey. In order to verify the mediating effect of pathological narcissism, a series of analyse were conducted: frequent analysis, descriptive analysis, independent sample t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), pearson’s correlation analysis, regression (simple and hierarchical) analysis. In research question 1, after Independent sample t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA), it was notable to see the results associated with demographic characteristics. First, women tend to have narcissistic vulnerability. If individuals who had lower English proficiency, they tend to have higher acculturative stress. Singles tend to have higher narcissistic grandiosity than married group. Individuals without religion tend to have narcissistic vulnerability than those with religion. It was interesting to see that Bachelor degree holders tend to have higher narcissistic grandiosity than Doctoral degree holders. In research question 2, after simple regression analysis, it was noted that higher acculturative stress predicted higher addiction proneness to SNS. As a way of dealing with stress, international students utilize online mediated communication as a method to release acculturative stress. In research question 3, after simple regression analysis, it was noticeable to see pathological narcissism was significantly related to addiction proneness to SNS. It is suggested that as narcissistic vulnerability is mingled with acculturative stress, Korean adults may express unreleased thoughts, emotions which can be manifested through online mediated communication in the form of cognitive, emotional attack to the self and toward others. Furthermore, in research question 4, after hierarchical regression analysis, the mediating effect of pathological narcissism in between acculturative stress and addiction proneness to SNS showed that narcissistic vulnerability controlled these cognitive, emotional attack which can be done through computer mediated communication, a channel that seemingly narcissistic vulnerable individuals with higher acculturative stress will be likely to maintain their contingent self-esteem, and feelings of entitlement, and expect special consideration. If expectation to be treated with specialness is failed, narcissistic vulnerable individuals will respond to negative feedback from others in an adverse and rough manner and use cognitive and verbal aggressive attack toward it. In turn, it will lead to pathological use of SNS, maintaining a problematic communication method which impede building positive and healthy interpersonal behaviors and relationships. To sum up, it was noticeable to see acculturative stress predicts higher pathological narcissism, especially on the narcissistic vulnerability dimension. As acculturative stress increases narcissistic vulnerability, it is confirmed that acculturative stress also increases the susceptibility to SNS overuse. If individuals psycho-socially withdrawn from the society, they may prefer online communication, rather than face-to-face communication; however, if they excessively indulge on the online communication, such pathological use of Internet can lead to addiction proneness to SNS. If one feels incompletion and frustration in cultural adaptation, he or she socially isolate, meaning accumulation of unreleased stress from adjustment becomes introjection of anger to the self and causes difficulties in cognitive, emotional regulation. Particularly, individuals with high pathological narcissistic tendency due to these stress-stimulant factors additionally get acculturative stress and may not be able to release their emotions and thoughts properly. Then, there is a possibility that they may use online communication method rather than face-to-face real situation communication in order to protect their contingent self-esteem from threatening environmental factors. Individuals who have become narcissistic vulnerable persists in their fragility and seek for endless recognition and praise, ultimately if not treated with specialness, the intense anger can be aroused. Rather than comparing to others, these individuals form their self-worth or self-regard by their own inner value and this egocentric way may increase their pathological narcissistic tendency. From this respect, it can be inferred that continuation of unreleased stress to be internalized and maintenance in the use of online communication to express emotions may increase the susceptibility to SNS overuse, ultimately resulting in regression in personal growth and negative impact on mental health. In addition, if individuals feel solely satisfied with like comments on the status, they will maintain maladaptive narcissism. Surely, if individuals recognize the benefits of the online communication, their need to be praised can be fulfilled in an appropriate level. However, if excessive in use, it hinders them from forming healthy self-esteem and narcissism, resulting in psychological harm to the self. International students in cultural adaptation will be influenced by Facebook which provides interpersonal communication channel, which in turn affects on their emotional management and regulation. According to (Saad, 2012), since social networking site(SNS) do not require social conventions and values to be matched, it promotes users to form exaggerated self and inflated self-worth in that SNS offer freedom to express what they want to express without care for others. It is predictable that this maladaptive emotional regulatory method will increase acculturative stress and promote pathological narcissism rather than fostering healthy cultural adaptation experience. Individuals who are prone to release and regulate their repressed acculturative stress will more likely to become hostile toward social environment and hold negative perceptions of themselves. There exists a study that pathological narcissism would be positively correlated with levels of aggression, anger, and hostility while healthy narcissism would not be positively correlated with aggression, anger, and hostility (Rozenblatt, 2002). This infers that individuals with higher narcissistic vulnerability might become more oriented to express aggression toward external factors flowing from the new culture. From the perspective on counseling issues, if individuals consistently get acculturative stress and confined to repress their emotions and thoughts, it is more likely that they may depend on the SNS to compensate their lack of need to satiate. If SNS functions as a compensatory mechanism, the cravings for needs to be satisfied in reality and seeking assurance and praise for profile photos or status updates act as a booster and come into increase pathological narcissistic dimension. Due to this pathological pattern in pursuit of recognition, Sadd (2012) pointed out on the problems on users’ excessive time investment on decorating, showing off, and marketing their selves. Rather than fulfilling compensatory need through SNS, it is more effective for individuals to seek for help from counseling services in universities and know what their vulnerability is about. In addition, counselor needs to know the level of covert narcissism in advance especially dealing with individuals with high acculturative stress and preoccupied with SNS. Counselor needs to improve clients of fragile self-image to have healthy self-image, induce them to make judgements on the self not based on the comparison with others, but on their own inner standard, decrease dysfunctional emotion, and ameliorate empathic ability. It is hoped that this study will serve as a platform for discovering the relations between acculturative stress and pathological narcissism, expanding its relation to addiction proneness to SNS. This study lays the foundation for future work on making implications for counseling interventions with individuals high in acculturative stress associated with pathological narcissism and addiction-proneness to SNS.
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