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2009개정 교육과정 고등학교 음악과 선택교과 ‘음악과 생활’ 국악영역 분석연구

Title
2009개정 교육과정 고등학교 음악과 선택교과 ‘음악과 생활’ 국악영역 분석연구
Other Titles
A Research on the comparative Analysis of Korean traditional music in High school optional subject ‘Music and Life’ Textbook based on the 2009 Revised National Curriculum
Authors
이율희
Issue Date
2015
Department/Major
교육대학원 음악교육전공
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
김선미
Abstract
본 연구의 목적은 2009개정 고등학교 음악과 선택교과 ‘음악과 생활’ 교과서에 수록되어 있는 국악영역을 분석하여 균형적인 교과서 편찬에 도움이 되는 기초적인 참고자료를 제공하는 것이다. 본 논문의 연구 대상은 음악과 생활 10종 교과서인 ‘경기도교육청’, ‘교학사’, ‘금성출판사’, ‘미래엔’, ‘박영사’, ‘아침나라’, ‘음악과 생활’, ‘지학사’, ‘천재교육’, ‘현대음악’이며, 분석 방법은 각 출판사별로 국악영역의 구성 체제와 비중을 알아보고, 국악 제재곡을 ‘의식음악’, ‘아악’, ‘가악’, ‘민속악’, ‘창작 기악’, ‘창작 성악’의 장르별로, 2009개정 교육과정을 바탕으로 연구자가 임의로 제시한 ‘이해’, ‘감상’, ‘가창’, ‘기악’, ‘창작’, ‘신체표현’, ‘음악의 영향력’, ‘문화적 산물로서의 음악’의 내용 영역별로 분류하였으며, 이를 토대로 ‘음악과 생활’ 10종 출판사 전체에서 제시된 국악영역을 체제 및 비중, 장르별, 내용 영역별로 분석하였다. 분석 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 고등학교 ‘음악과 생활’ 10종 교과서를 각 출판사에 따라 구성 체제 및 비중, 장르별, 영역별로 분류한 결과, ‘경기도교육청’은 국악의 비율이 31.25%로 모든 장르와 영역이 포함되어있고, ‘교학사’는 36.84%로 모든 장르가 실려 있었으나 ‘신체표현’이 제시되지 않았으며, ‘금성출판사’는 32.48%의 비율로 모든 장르가 나타났으나 ‘음악의 영향력’, ‘문화적 산물로서의 음악’이 수록되지 않았다. ‘미래엔’은 24.41%의 비율이 나타났으며, ‘의식음악’장르와 ‘창작’영역이 실리지 않았고, ‘박영사’에서는 19.21%의 비율로 ‘창작 성악’장르와 ‘음악의 영향력’영역이 나타나지 않았다. ‘아침나라’는 21.90%, ‘음악과 생활’은 30.40%로 두 출판사 모두 모든 장르를 제시하였으나 ‘신체표현’과 ‘음악의 영향력’이 수록되지 않았다. ‘지학사’에서는 26.19%의 비율로 모든 장르를 포함하고 있었으나 ‘음악의 영향력’, ‘문화적 산물로서의 음악’이 제시되지 않았으며, ‘천재교육’에서는 23.45%로 ‘지학사’와 마찬가지로 모든 장르를 포함하고 있으나 ‘신체표현’, ‘음악의 영향력’, ‘문화적 산물로서의 음악’이 나타나지 않았다. 마지막으로 ‘현대음악’은 국악곡이 38.95%의 비율을 보였으며, 모든 장르가 제시되었으나 ‘문화적 산물로서의 음악’이 실려 있지 않았다. 둘째, 2009개정 교육과정 고등학교 음악과 선택교과 ‘음악과 생활’ 10종 교과서 전체의 단원 구성은 가창·기악·창작·감상 등으로 분류한 ‘활동별’, 교육과정의 영역으로 분류한 ‘영역별’, ‘기타’의 구성 체제를 갖고 있었으며, 단원을 ‘영역별’로 구성한 형태가 가장 많이 나타났다. 또한 국악곡이 평균 39.7곡, 국악 외 악곡이 평균 100.3곡으로 국악영역의 비중은 평균 28.36%를 보였고, 출판사별 국악 제재곡 비중이 최대 38.95%, 최저 19.21%로 그 편차가 크게 나타났다. 셋째, ‘음악과 생활’ 10종 교과서 전체에 제시된 국악 제재곡을 장르에 따라 ‘의식음악’, ‘아악’, ‘가악’, ‘민속악’, ‘창작 기악’, ‘창작 성악’으로 분류하여 분석한 결과 ‘민속악’이 58.69%로 가장 많이 제시되었으며, ‘아악’ 11.59%, ‘창작 기악’ 9.57%, ‘창작 성악’ 9.32%, ‘가악’ 5.54%, ‘의식음악’ 5.29%의 비율을 보여 ‘민속악’과 ‘의식음악’의 편차가 크게 나타났고, 국악 제재곡이 ‘민속악’장르에 치우쳐 있었다. 넷째, ‘음악과 생활’ 10종 교과서 전체의 국악 제재곡에서 제시된 활동영역을 ‘이해’, ‘감상’, ‘가창’, ‘기악’, ‘창작’, ‘신체표현’, ‘음악의 영향력’, ‘문화적 산물로서의 음악’으로 분류해 분석한 결과, ‘감상’이 34.77%로 가장 높은 비중을 보였으며, ‘가창’ 27.75%, ‘이해’ 15.15%, ‘기악’ 11.80%, ‘창작’ 4.31%, ‘신체표현’ 2.55%, ‘문화적 산물로서의 음악’ 2.39%, ‘음악의 영향력’ 1.28% 순으로 실렸고, 가장 많이 제시된 ‘감상’과 가장 적게 제시된 ‘음악의 영향력’의 편차가 크게 나타났다. 또한, ‘이해’, ‘감상’, ‘가창’, ‘기악’은 모든 출판사에서 제재곡의 활동영역으로 제시된 반면, ‘창작’, ‘신체표현’, ‘음악의 영향력’, ‘문화적 산물로서의 음악’은 ‘경기도 교육청’을 제외한 나머지 출판사에서 최소 1개에서 최대 3개의 영역이 제시되지 않고 있어 영역별 균형이 이루어지지 않았다. 민족 문화를 경험할 수 있도록 하고 정체성을 일깨워주며 정서적인 측면 또한 발달시켜주는 등의 중요한 역할을 갖고 있는 국악을 학생들에게 올바르게 전달하기 위해서는 국악 영역의 양적 및 질적인 증가가 필요하며 이를 위해 교육과정과 교과서 내 국악영역의 균형적인 내용제시가 우선적으로 실행되어야 할 것이다. 본 논문의 연구결과가 교사들의 음악교과서 선택, 수업 설계 혹은 교육과정의 개편 시 기초적 참고자료로 사용되길 바라며 더불어 국악 교육의 발전에 보탬이 되길 기대해본다.;The purpose of this research is to analyze the course in korean traditional music included in 2009 revised high school music textbook of the optional subject entitled, ‘Music and Life,’ which provides basic reference materials that are helpful in the compilation of textbooks. The targets of this research are 10 kinds of textbook in Music and Life: ‘Gyeonggi-do Education Office’, ‘Kyohaksa’, ‘Kumsung Publisher’, ‘Mirea N’, ‘Pakyoungsa’, ‘Achimnara’, ‘Music and Life’, ‘Jihaksa’, ‘Chunjae Education’, and ‘Hyundai Music.’ The method of analysis was to investigate the emphasis of korean traditional music in the textbooks is to research on the structure system and its emphasis. Moreover, this research classified the classical Korean textbook music into the following genres: ‘Ritual Music’, ‘Ceremonial Music’, ‘Voice Music’, ‘Folk Music’, ‘Instrumental Music Creation’, and ‘Voice Music Creation.’ They were classified according to content areas temporarily suggested by the researcher based on the 2009 revised education curriculum, which are as follows: ‘Comprehension’, ‘Appreciation’, ‘Singing’, ‘Instrument’, ‘Creation’, ‘Physical Expression’, ‘Musical Influence’, ‘Music as Cultural Product’. Based on those results, the research analyzed the korean traditional music presented in all of the 10 kinds of publisher ‘Music and Life’ according to emphasis, genre, and contents areas. The analyzed results are found below. First, when 10 kinds of high school textbooks on ‘Music and Life’ were classified in terms of structure system and emphasis, genre, and the areas according to each publisher, ‘Gyeonggi-do Education Office’ had a korean traditional music ratio of 31.25%, which included all genres and areas. ‘Kyohaksa’ had 36.84%, including all genres except for ‘Physical Expression’ activity, and ‘Kumsung Publisher’ had 32.48%, including all genres except for ‘Musical Influence’ and ‘Music as Cultural Product’. ‘Mirea N’ showed a 24.41% ratio but did not contain the ‘Ritual Music’ genre and the ‘Creation’ area. ‘Pakyoungsa’ had 19.21% but did not show the ‘Voice Music Creation’ genre and the ‘Musical Influence’ area. ‘Achimnara’ had 21.90%, and ‘Music and Life’ had 30.40%, and while both presented all genres, ‘Physical Expression’ and ‘Musical Influence’ weren’t included. ‘Jihaksa’ had a 26.19% ratio, including all genres, but did not present ‘Musical Influence’ and ‘Music as Cultural Product.’ ‘Chunjae Education’ had 23.45%, and like ‘Jihaksa’, it contained all genres, but did not show ‘Physical Expression’, ‘Musical Influence’, and ‘Music as Cultural Product’. Lastly, ‘Hyundai Music’ showed 38.95% of korean traditional music, and presented all genres, but was confirmed that ‘Music as Cultural Product’ was not included. Second, the 2009 revised education curriculum high school music and chapter construction of 10 kinds of textbook in ‘Music and Life’ had a structure system classified into ‘activity’, which was classified according to singing, instrument, creation, and appreciation; ‘area’, which was classified according to areas in education; and ‘others.’ The construction system of chapters into ‘area’ appeared the most. Also, korean traditional music was presented with an average of 39.7 songs, and music other than korean traditional music was presented with an average of 100.3 songs. The emphasis of korean traditional music showed an average of 28.36%, and the emphasis according to publisher appeared a maximum 38.95%, and a minimum 19.21%, in which it was confirmed that there is large deviation of emphasis among textbooks. Third, when korean traditional music presented in all 10 kinds of textbook of ‘Music and Life’ was classified according to genres and analyzed, ‘Folk Music’ was most presented as 58.69%, and the others are as follows: ‘Ceremonial Music’ as 11.59%, ‘Instrumental Music Creation’ as 9.57%, ‘Voice Music Creation’ as 9.32%, ‘Voice Music’ as 5.54%, and ‘Ritual Music’ as 5.29%, showing a large deviation between Folk Music and Ritual Music, and it could be seen that korean traditional music is biased towards the ‘Folk Music’ genre. Fourth, when the activity area presented korean traditional music in all 10 kinds of textbook of ‘Music and Life’ was classified and analyzed, ‘Appreciation’ had 34.77%, showing the highest emphasis, and the others were as follows: ‘Singing’ was 27.75%, ‘Comprehension’ was 15.15%, ‘Instrument’ was 11.80%, ‘Creation’ was 4.31%, ‘Physical Expression’ was 2.55%, ‘Music as Cultural Product’ was 2.39%, and ‘Musical Influence’ was 1.28%, and the deviation between the most presented ‘Appreciation’ and the least presented ‘Musical Influence’ appeared to be large. Moreover, while ‘Comprehension’, ‘Appreciation’, ‘Singing’, and ‘Instrument’ were presented as music activities to every publisher, at least one to three areas of ‘Creation’, ‘Physical Expression’, ‘Musical Influence’, and ‘Music as Cultural Product’ were not presented in publishers other than ‘Gyeonggi-do Education Office’, confirming that a real balance is not being achieved. To properly convey korean traditional music, which has many important roles such as providing experience in ethnic culture, arousing our identity, and developing emotional side, there is need for quality and quantity increase in korean traditional music area to the students. In order to do so, a balanced presentation of the content of korean traditional music in the education curriculum and the textbook must be first carried out. It is hoped that the result of research of this thesis can be used as a basic referential material in the choosing of music textbook, creation of teaching plans, or revision of education curriculum, together with the expectation of contributing to the development of korean traditional music education.
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