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學校長의 指導力 行動에 관한 硏究

Title
學校長의 指導力 行動에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on the leader behavior of principals
Authors
노몽규
Issue Date
1983
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공교육행정분야
Keywords
학교장지도력행동교육학
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
오은경
Abstract
本 硏究는 敎育現場에서 나타나는 學校長의 指導力 行動의 程度를 알아 봄으로써 學校長의 指導力의 실제를 把握하는데 그 目的이 있다. 이러한 目的을 가지고 國內外의 參考文獻을 通하여 指導力 行動에 대한 理論的 背景을 敍述하였으며 理論的 背景에 따라 學校長의 指導力 行動을 欲求充足, 改革, 學習機會 提供, 組織維持를 爲한 4가지 領域으로 나누었고 이들 各各의 領域에서 나타나는 學校長의 指導力 行動을 具體化하여 質問紙를 作成하였다. 變因으로는 學校長이 所屬되어 있는 學校의 設立別, 學校長의 性別, 學校長의 年齡別 變因이 考慮되었다. 調査硏究는 서울市 所在 國公私立學校의 現職敎師를 對象으로 實施하였으며 蒐集된 資料는 變因別 集團間 平均點을 算出하여 點數差를 比較하였고 X^(2) 實驗을 通해 5%의 水準에서 有意度를 살펴보았다. 調査硏究에 대한 分析 結果는 다음과 같다. 學校現場에서 成員의 欲求充足을 위한 學校長의 指導力 行動들은 어쩌다가 나타났고, 全分野에서 私立學校 校長이 國公立學校 校長보다 欲求充足에 關聯된 指導力 行動을 發揮하지 못하였다. 男女別로는 區別해 볼만한 差異가 없었으며, 年齡別로는 50세 未滿의 校長이 指導力 行動을 제일 보이지 못하고 있었고 50代 校長과 60代 校長은 비슷한 편이나 50代 校長이 더 많은 指導力 行動을 보이는 傾向이었다. 특히 50代 미만의 校長은 敎師들의 挫折에 대해 무심한 반면 敎授道具의 供給에서는 적극적으로 支援하여 授業에 대해서는 다른 연령의 校長들과 비슷한 關心을 보였다. 學校現場에서 組織의 改革을 위한 校長의 指導力 行動들도 어쩌다가 나타났다. 全分野에서 國公立學校 校長이 私立學校 校長보다 改革을 위한 指導力 行動을 훨씬 많이 보이고 있으며 특히 敎師들과 함께 意思決定을 하고, 일을 遂行할 때 다른 사람을 이끌어들이고, 變化에 대한 抵抗을 理解하고 校長自身의 意思變更을 考慮하는 問題에서 두드러진 差異를 보이고 있었다. 男校長과 女校長은 두드러진 行動의 差異가 없었다. 年齡別로는 50세 未滿 校長의 改革을 위한 指導力 行動들이 제일 적게 나타났으며 50代 校長과 60代 校長은 비슷한 程度의 指導力을 보였으나 50代 校長이 좀더 많은 指導力 行動을 보여 주었다. 學校現場에서 學習機會를 提供할려는 校長의 指導力 行動들은 가끔 나타나서 다른 分野에 비해 學習機會를 提供하려는 行政行動을 發揮하는 傾向을 보였다. 全 領域에서 國·公立學校 校長이 私立學校 校長보다 指導力 行動을 많이 보이고 있었다. 女校長이 男校長보다 指導力 行동을 좀 더 보이는 傾向으로 특히 敎師들의 問題解決을 돕거나 學生指導時 問題把握좌 代案을 決定하는 部分에서 두드러졌다. 年齡別로는 全領域에서 50대 미만 校長의 指導力 行動이 제일 적게 나타났으며 50代 校長이 그런대로 指導力 行動을 많이 보여주었다. 60代 校長은 行動基準과 役割 期待가 一致하며, 성급하고 形式的인 決定을 내리지 않고, 意思疎通을 원활하게 하는 指導力 行動을 두드러지게 보였으며, 授業效果를 위해 일을 分擔하고 責任을 지우는 問題에서는 50代 校長보다 뒤져서 授業效果를 위해서는 별로 努力하지 않는 傾向을 보였다. 學校現場에서 組職維持를 위한 校長의 指導力 行動은 가끔 나타나고 있어서 이 分野의 行政行動들은 그런대로 發揮되고 있었다. 全領域에서 모두 國·公立學校 校長들의 指導力 行動들이 私立學校 校長들의 水準을 능가하고 있었으나 男女校長은 유의해 볼 差異가 없었으며 年齡別 比較에서는 위의 3領域에서처럼 50세 未滿 校長의 指導力 行動이 相對的으로 底調하였고 그다음이 50代 校長, 60代 校長의 順으로 指導力 行動을 보이는 傾向이었다. 作業遂行을 爲한 計劃 및 援助에 대한 指導力 行動은 50代 校長이 좀 더 자주 보여주었고, 個人이나 集團間의 葛藤에 대한 問題에는 60代 校長이 두드러지게 많은 指導力 行動을 나타내어 人間에 대한 關心과 理解를 보여 주었다. 4가지 全分野에서 國·公立學校 校長의 指導力 行動들이 많이 나타나고 相對的으로 私立學校 校長은 不足하였으며 男女別로는 問題解決의 도움과 學生指導 問題를 빼고는 두드러진 차이가 없었다. 年齡別로는 50代 未滿의 校長보다 50代, 60代 校長이 指導力 行動을 많이 發揮하였으며 50代 校長은 전반적으로 좀 더 나았고 60代 校長은 敎師들의 葛藤問題에서 두드러진 指導力 行動을 보여 人間에 대한 더 많은 關心을 나타내었다.;The purpose of this study is to find out the leader behavior of principals which is shown in educational agencies. Based on theoretical background, leader behavior was classified into satisfying needs, innovating, providing learning opportunities, and maintaining the organization. This study was done by sending out the questionnaire, in which leader behavior was specified according to each dimension. The selected variables for the questionnaire were: Whether he(or she) was in the Public School or Private School, male or female, and his(or her) age. And the main subjects were as follows; (1) Satisfying need : Discuss with each individual his or her needs, wants, and problems. Observe carefully the symptoms of satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Communicate at all levels. Identify or Utilize the expertise and ideas of each person. Learning what job is affecting to the person's self esteem. Providing tools and materials necessary to task performance. Providing the reward an individual expects. (2) Innovating : Discussing what the group is trying to accomplish. Diagnosing present organization needs. Involving people in performance. Involving people in decision that will affect them. Considers altering his or her own views or offers new arguments. Structuring a group of the proper people and size to make the needed decision. (3) providing learning opportunity: Helps individuals to solve problem. his behavior is mixture of expectations from all origins. Makes best decision after a problem is analyzed. Selecting and organizing personnel. Clarifying channels of Communication. Arranging budget if necessary. (4) Maintaining the organization: Securing the necessary things Establishing standards and assuring that standards and individual responsibility are understood. Specifying schedules-quantities and times, Clarifying the nature of the conflict. Listen with understanding rather than evaluation. Control collective behavior. Identifying evidence for appraising member's responsibility and goal achievement the subjects of this research were teachers in public or private school located in Seoul. And the datum were taken statistics and the mean of each variable was figured of to be compared. Chi square (X^(2)) method which is 5% in Significance rate was adopted. Results of the research were as follows: (1) Satisfying need Generally leader behaviors for satisfying need were appraised to appear incidentally on the ground of education. All over the field the principals in public schools showed up much more leader behaviors than those in private schools. The meaningful differences did not occur between male and female principals. In his age the leader behaviors of principals less than 50 appeared least. In the comparision of principals in fifties and dixties, there were not many differences but principals in fifties tended to appear leader behaviors a little more. Particularly the principals less than fifty took no interest in teacher's conflict, on the other hand they actually assisted to provide tools and materials necessary to task performance. (2) Innovation Leader behaviors for innovation were also appraised to incidentally appear on the ground of education. All over the field the principals in public schools showed up much more behaviors for innovation than those in private schools. Particularly there were meaningful differences in involving others in performance. Involving people in decision that will affect them. Recognizing symptoms of resistance. Consider altering his own views. There were not meaningful differences in the comparision between male and female principals. There were not meaningful differences in the comparision between male and female principals. The principals in fifties and sixties tended to show leaser behaviors similarly but principals in fifties were appraised a little higher. (3) Providing learning opportunity The leader behavior for providing learning opportunity sometimes appeared, so behaviors for administering tended to appear more than behaviors for leading. All over the field the principals in public schools showed up much more leader behaviors than those in private schools. In the comparision of male and female, female principals tended to show more leader behaviors in helping individuals to solve problems and making best decision after a problem is analyzed. In his age, principals less than fifty, principals in fifties, and principals in sixties showed up leader behaviors proceeding step by step. The principals in sixties particularly expressed leader behaviors in making best decision after a problem is analyzed and showing behaviors in mixture of expectations from all origins. But principals in sixties tended not to arrear leader behaviors in Fixing responsibility for task accomplishment, so they were not interested in task accomplishment. (4) Maintaining the organization Leader behaviors for maintaining the organization sometimes appeared, so principal behaviors for administering appeared more than behaviors for leading. All over the field leader behaviors of the principals in public school showed much more than those of the principals in private school. In the comparision between male and female principals, there were not meaningful differences. In his age principals less than fifty, principals in fifties, and principals in sixties, expressed leader proceeding step by step. Leader behaviors of principals in fifties went ahead in Setting standards of performance and product specification. In utilizing conflicts and controling collective behaviors, principals in sixties were outstanding of three, so they showed interest and understanding for people.
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