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現行 正樂의 樂器編成法에 관한 硏究

Title
現行 正樂의 樂器編成法에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
(A) Study on the contemporary Instrumentation for Chongak
Authors
朴仁惠
Issue Date
1984
Department/Major
교육대학원 음악교육전공
Keywords
현행정악악기편성법음악교육
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
황병기
Abstract
The Chongak which had been used as music ceremonial before came to be used for concerts after the Enlightenment period; and this change demanded a new Instrumentation in order to heighten the effect of performances. This thesis is designed to make a contribution to systematizing Instrumentation by examining the relations between the Contemporary Instrumentation and music. The kinds of organization of instruments were classified with the p'iri as the major one. Namely, in organizing instruments with the T'ang P'iri as the major one, Pot'aep'yong, Chongdaeop, Chinch'an, and Kyongmogungak were dealt with in the field of ritual music and Chongdongbanggok, Yuhwanggok, Man, Ponnyong, Haeyong, Nakyangch'un, and Pohoja were treated in the field of banquet music. In organizing instruments with the hyangp'iri as the major one, Samhyon Yongsan Hoesang, Chajinhanip, Sujech'on, Tongdong, Ch'wit'a, Kilgunnak, Kilt' aryong, Pyolujot'aryong, and Kunak were examined as ensemlbles with wind instruments and P' yongjoHoesang, Yominnak, Mihwanip, Sehwangip, and Ch'wit'a were selected as ensembles with wind and string instruments. In organizing instruments with the sep'iri as the major one, Yongsan Hoesang, Ch'onnyon Manse, Sehwanip, and Kagok were mentioned. Included in the organization of instruments excepting the p'iri are Munmyo Cheryeak, Taech'wit'a, and Pohosa. (Refer to Table 1.) This pattern organizing instruments took the musical characteristics of tunes into consideration. The instruments organized have very close relations with the musical characteristics of tunes. In organizing instruments with the T' and P'iri as the major one, emphasis was placed also on such T' and instruments as the p'yonjong and p'yon'gyong. Tunes that are played under this kind of organization are generally C in the hwangjong and there are few trailing sounds, trembling sounds, and accessory sounds. They are suitable for old-fashioned naive music consisting of one beat for one sound. The instruments among which the hyangp'iri plays the leading role are organized with Korean ones excluding those which came from the T' and music. Tunes that are played with these instruments are goner ally E^(b) in the hwangjong and there are many trailing sounds, trembling sounds and accessory sound. They are not suitable for the T' and p'iri which finds it difficult to emit accessory sound or trembling sounds and also for tep'yongjong and p'yon'gyong which are of the nature of percussion instruments consisting of one beat for one sound. Wind instruments are indispensable for expressing the brilliant accessory sounds and trembling sounds and the changgu is assigned to the important role of leading rhythm in T'aryong and Kutokkori. Therefore, the organization of samhyon and yukkak (taegum, hyangp'iri, haegum, changgu, and chago) is natural and ensembles with wind and string instruments are of the pattern of having string instruments (kayagum, hyon' gum, and yanggum) as an addition. They are suitable for gay fiance music, The organization of instruments centering on the sep'iri laid emphasis on string instruments such as the kayagum and hyon'gum and is suitable for chamber music that can make the most of the beauty of delicate 1igering sounds. Tunes that are played under the organization using the p'iri. The organization of instruments for Munmyo Cheryeak are made of eight different materials for the purpose of pursuing the harmony in the universe and the profound thought of music. We are asked to discern sounds emitting from eight kinds of Instruments (metal, stone, string, bamboo, gourd, earth, leather, and wood). For the Taech'wit'a which is military music, the t'aep'yongso whose volume of sound is big and percussion instruments were selected in organizing. Pohosa is the only tune among Chongak pieces that is of the pattern of ensemble with string instruments. My Instrumentation is a little different from the exist ing method of organizing instruments which appears in Kokak Kaeyo by Chang Sa-hun and Han'guk Umak by Kim Ki-su which were selected as reference materials. This thesis compared and arranged them and presented a rational as shown in Table 3.;과거에는 주로 의식음악으로 쓰이던 正樂이 개화기 이후 연주회용 음악으로 쓰이면서 연주효과를 위한 새로운 악기편성법을 요구하게 되었다. 본 논문은 현행 악기편성법과 음악과의 관계를 고찰함으로써 악기편성법의 체계화에 도움이 되고자 한다. 악기편성의 종류는 □□위주로 나누었다. 즉, 唐피리 중심의 악기 편성에는 제례악으로 保太平·定大業·進饌·景慕宮樂, 연례악으로 靖東方曲·維皇曲·慢·本令·解令·洛陽春·步虛子등이고, 鄕피리 중심의 악기편성에는 관악합주로 三絃靈山會相·자진한잎·壽齋天·動動·吹打·길군악·길타령·別羽調打令·軍樂, 관현합주로 平調會相·興民樂·尾還入·細還入·吹打등이며 細피리 중심의 악기편성에는 靈山會相·千年萬歲·細還入·歌曲등이다. 그리고 피리를 제외한 악기편성에는 文廟祭禮樂·大吹打·步虛詞등이다. 이러한 악기편성법의 유형은 악곡의 음악적 특성과 관련되어 이루어진 것으로 편성악기와 음악적 특성과는 매우 밀접한 관계를 갖고 있다. 唐피리 중심의 악기편성은 唐피리·編鍾·編磬등의 악기가 위주로 편성된 것이며, 이러한 편성으로 연주되는 악곡들은 대체로 黃鍾이 C이며 長引音·弄音·裝飾音이 적다. 1音1拍의 古朴한 음악에 적합하다. 향피리 중심의 악기편성은 鄕피리·大□·奚琴 등의 악기가 위주로 편성된 것이며, 이러한 편성으로 연주되는 악곡들은 대체로 黃鍾이 E^(b)이며 長引音·弄音·裝飾音이 많아서 장식음과 농음이 힘든 唐피리나 1音1拍의 타악기적인 編鍾·編磬은 부적합하다. 화려한 장식음과 농음을 표현하려면 관악기가 필수적이고, 타령·도드리 장단을 이끌어 갈 杖鼓가 중요한 역할을 맡게 된다. 그러므로 三絃六角(大□·鄕피리·奚琴·杖鼓·座鼓)의 편성은 당연하다. 관현합주는 현악(伽倻琴·玄琴·洋琴)을 추가시킨 형태이다. 細피리 중심의 악기편성은 伽倻琴·玄琴 등 현악기 위주의 단잽이 편성이며, 섬세한 여음의 미를 충분히 살릴 수 있는 房中樂에 적합하다. 피리를 제외한 악기편성으로 연주되는 음악들은 피리를 사용하는 편성과는 판이하게 다르다. 즉, 文廟祭禮樂의 악기편성은 8가지 재료의 어울림으로 우주 조화의 심오한 음악사상을 추구한 것이며 八音(金部·石部·絲部·竹部·匏部·土部·革部·木部)을 구비해야 했다. 大吹打는 軍樂으로 음량이 큰 太平簫와 타악기 위주의 편성이었고, 步虛訶는 正樂曲중 유일한 絃樂合奏의 형태이었다. 참고자료로 선택한 張師勛의 「國樂槪要」와 金琪洙의 「韓國音樂」에 나타난 현행 악기편성은 약간의 차이점을 나타내고 있으므로, 본 논문은 그것을 비교 정리하여 표3과 같이 합리적인 악기편성법으로 제시하였다.
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