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우리나라 여교사의 교직활동에 관한 연구

Title
우리나라 여교사의 교직활동에 관한 연구
Other Titles
(A) STUDY OF PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES OF WOMEN TEACHERS IN KOREA
Authors
卓殷秀
Issue Date
1983
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공교육행정분야
Keywords
우리나라여교사교직활동중학교
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
유봉호
Abstract
本 硏究의 目的은 우리나라와 주요국가들의 여성의 교직진출 현황을 파악하고 여교사들의 교직활동 실태를 분석하여 교직활동에서 나타나는 문제점을 찾아내어 여교사들의 건전한 교직활동을 위한 방안을 제시하는데 있다. 이러한 目的을 위하여 바람직한 교사상과 여교사의 특질을 문헌 연구를 중심으로 파악하고 교직생활의 적성, 전문성, 만족, 자기연수 및 근무환경에 대하여 인식하고 있는 정도를 질문지법으로 조사하여 여교사들의 교직활동실태를 분석하고 학교행정가와의 면접으로 질문지 조사내용을 보완하였다. 연구대상은 서울시내 남자중학교, 여자중학교, 남녀공학중학교 각각 5개교씩 15개교를 고루 표집하여 여교사 292명으로 하였다. 우리나라 여성의 교직진출 현황을 살펴보면 초·중등여교사 증가 상황은 1982년 33.5%로 지난 1970년도의 24.3%에 비하여 여교사의 비율은 높아졌으나 캐나다(53.5%), 베네수엘라(63.0%), 오스트레일리아(58.0%), 싱가포르(59.0%), 프랑스(59,5%), 포르투갈(68,5%), 등에 비하면 그리 높은 편은 아니다. 현 추세로 보아 앞으로 교직에 여교사수가 더욱 급증되리라 예상된다. 질문지법에 의한 여교사의 교직활동 실태 분석 결과는 다음과 같이 나타났다. 1. 교직생활의 적성과 만족에 대하여 인식하는 정도는 학교출신별, 교직경력별, 기혼, 미혼에 관계없이 높은 반응을 나타내었고 "자기실현을 위한 평생 직업으로 적합하다.(31.2%)"는 반응과 부합되는 것으로 여성의 교직에 대한 관심도가 높다는 것을 나타내었다. 2. 교직생활에서 자기연수의 필요성을 인식하고 있는 정도는 학교출신별에 관계없이 약간 높은 반응이 나타났고 교직경력과 기혼·미혼여교사 사이에 차이점이 나타났다. 경력이 높을수록, 미혼보다 기혼여교사가 연수의 필요성을 절실히 느끼고 있음을 알 수 있다. 3. 교직생활에서의 전문성에 대하여 인식하고 있는 정도와 제고는 대단히 낮은 반응을 나타내었다. 학교출신별에 따른 반응의 차이점은 없으나 경력이 낮을수록 낮은 반응, 기혼보다 미혼여교사가 더욱 낮은 반응을 보여 교직생활의 문제점으로 나타났다. 4. 근무환경에 대하여 만족하는 정도는 학교출신별, 교직경력별, 기혼·미혼에 관계없이 대단히 낮은 반응을 보였다. 특히 과밀학급에 대한 반응은 가장 시급한 문제로 나타났다. 학교가 바람직한 교육을 위한 교육장의 역할을 할 수 있도록 하기 위해서는 교사교육에서 교직의 전문성 교육이 강조되어야 하겠고 여교사 자신도 교직에 대한 사명감을 가지고 남교사와 동등하게 임한다는 인식을 갖도록 노력해야 하며 교육환경 개선과 여교사의 승진 기회를 넓혀서 사기를 높혀주어야 될 것이다.;The purpose of this study it to analyze professional consciousness of women teachers in order to understand 색 present educational realities concerning women teachers in Korea when compared with women teachers in other countries, to find the problems in their teaching activities, and to make suggestions for the sound educational activities. To achieve this aim, the researcher not only reviewed literature to define the image of the ideal teacher and to understand characteristics of women teachers but also analyzed the present women teachers' professional activities by estimating the degree of their aptitude in teaching, their recognition of teaching as a profession, their satisfaction with teaching, and their recognition of the necessity of self-study and the importance of educational environment. To carry out the research for this thesis, the researcher mainly used questionnaires: however, to reinforce the results of the analysis of the questionnaires, the researcher also used interviews, especially in cases of educational administrators. The subjects of this research are 292 women teachers of 15 middle schools in Seoul. Among these schools, five are boys' middle schools, five are girls' middle schools, and five ar co-educational middle schools. The number of women teachers in Korea is steadily increasing over recent years. The ratio of women teachers in Korea is 33.5% in 1982, which shows remarkable increase from 243% in 1970. However, this ratio is still behind the ratio of women teachers in other countries. The ratio is 53.5% in Canada, 63.0% in Venezuela, 58.0% in Australia, 59.0% on Singapore, 59.5% in France, and 68.5% in Portugal. Nevertheless, the present trend in Korea shows steady increase of women teachers, and it is very likely that the number of women teachers in Korea will continue to increase rapidly in future. The results of the analysis of the questionnaires for this research are as follows: 1. Korean women teachers show high degree of aptitude for and satisfaction with teaching regardless of their educational backgrounds, the longevity of their career, and their marital status. This positive attitude is in accordance with the fact that many women teachers, 31.5% of the total women teachers, regard teaching as adequate for a lifelong profession where they can strive self-fulfillment. This positive attitude also ascertains that Korean women in general are much interested in education. 2. As for the necessity of self-study in teaching, Korean women teachers show slightly high degree of recognizing its importance. however, the teachers show difference in the degree of their recognition according to the longevity of their career and their marital status. The longer they are engaged in teaching, the more they recognize the importance of self-study. Married teachers show higher degree of recognition of the necessity of self-study. The above results prove the necessity of the spread of lifelong education in the Korean society. 3. As for the recognition of the professionalism in teaching, the women teachers show very low degree of its recognition. There is no remarkable difference in the degree of recognition according to their academic backgrounds. However, teachers with shorter teaching career and single teachers show lower degree of recognition This low degree of professionalism can be pointed out as a problem in education in korea. 4. As for the recognition of the importance of educational environment, the women teachers show very low degree of recognition of its importance regardless of their academic backgrounds, longevity of their teaching career, and marital status. However, most teachers agree that the large class size is the most urgent educational problem to be solved in Korea. From the above results, the researcher here makes the following suggestions to reinforce the role of the school as the central educational field where ideal educational activities are conducted: the importance of teaching as a profession should be emphasized in teacher edeucation, women teachers should try to have stronger sense of mission in their teaching itself and in their obligation to prove their competence no less than men teachers' competence, the educational environment should be remarkably improved, and the opportunities for promotion should be more open to women teachers to raise the morale of women teachers.
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