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老人女性의 役割에 관한 硏究

Title
老人女性의 役割에 관한 硏究
Other Titles
ON THE ROLE OF OLD WOMEN
Authors
具昭苑
Issue Date
1987
Department/Major
교육대학원 사회과교육전공일반사회교육분야
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Advisors
朱樂元
Abstract
本 硏究에서는 從來 老人男性 爲主 내지 男女를 망라한 老人一般에 대한 硏究方向과는 달리 老人女性이 男性優越思想에서 벗어나지 못한 傳統的 價値觀 속에서 生活하고 있다는 점과 平均壽命이 老人男性부다 길므로 全體的인 人生의 측면에서 볼 때 老人男性에 比해 문제는 더 심각하다고 思慮되기 때문이다. 傳統社會에 비하여 現代社會에 있어서 老人女性의 地位와 役割에 대한 諸般 狀況과 內容의 변화는 오늘날 老人女性問題를 낳기에 충분한 요인이 되고 있다. 그러므로 本 硏究는 男性中心의 社會에 內在되어 있는 老人女性問題의 特殊性과 그 核心을 파악하고, 날로 그 심각성을 더해가고 있는 老人女性問題의 豫防과 解決을 위한 基礎資料로 제공하는데 그 目的이 있다. 本 硏究는 선행 諸 文獻硏究를 통해서 老人女性의 槪念과 特性, 老人女性問題가 대두된 원인, 老人社會學의 役割理論을 살펴보고, 傳統社會에서와 현대사회에서의 老人女性의 役割變化에 대해 理論的 考察을 한 다음, 實證的 硏究로서 質問紙調査를 통해서 老人女性의 役割, 生活滿足度, 認知的 狀況이 老人女性이 同居하고 있는 家口主의 經濟水準에 따라 어떠한 차이가 있는가를 比較?考察하였다. 標本抽出은 서울시에 居住하는 만 60才 이상의 老人女性 200명을 對象으로 하였으며, 가능한 한 모든 階層을 對象으로 얻기 위해 三階層化 無作爲抽出 ( Three-Stage Stratified Random Sampling ) 方法을 사용하였다. 調査實施는 1987年 2月 1日에서 2月 15日까지 2週間에 걸쳐 個別面接을 하였으며, 資料分析은 結婚한 子息내외, 孫子女와 同居하고 있는 老人女性 137 명 만을 對象으로 經濟水準別로 比較하였다. 本 硏究結果 밝혀진 중요한 點들을 要約하면 다음과 같다. 1. 老人女性은 家口主의 經濟水準이 높을수록 여러가지 家事에 골고루 參與하고 있으며, 孫子女를 돌보는 程度도 높게 나타나고 있다. 經濟水準이 낮을수록 돈벌이를 원하는 이유로 經濟的 이유를 들고 있으며, 餘暇時間의 活用도 家族中心的이다. 2. 老人女性은 家口主의 經濟水準이 높을수록 同年輩와 比較해서 느끼는 幸福度도 높고, 외로움을 知覺하는 정도가 낮으며, 근심?걱정이 없다는 비율도 높다. 經濟水準이 낮을수록 經濟的 不安定과 健康이 나쁜 것을 근심?걱정하고 있다. 3. 老人女性은 家口主의 經濟水準이 높을수록 老後生活費는 젊었을 때 貯蓄해야 하며, 生活費問題가 해결되어도 老後는 子息과 같이 살아야 한다는 意識이 강하게 나타나고 있다. 經濟水準이 낮을수록 딸내외와의 同居意識에는 부정적이다. 끝으로 本 硏究의 結果 浮刻된 老人女性問題의 豫防과 解決을 위해서 몇가지 方案을 提示해 보고자 한다. 첫째, 個人的으로는 老人女性 自身이 가능한 한 子女에 대한 依存的인 삶을 止揚하고 自身의 귀중한 體驗과 知識?機能을 活用하여 종래 遂行하여 온 役割의 持續 내지 새로운 役割을 創出해 내도록 해야 할 것이다. 둘째, 子女의 입장에서는 老父母를 扶養하는 책임을 國家나 社會로 돌리기 이전에 일차적 責任은 子女들에 自身에게 있다는 것을 銘心해야 할 것이다. 세째, 사회적으로는 새時代에 맞는 孝의 槪念을 정립하여 世代間의 價値觀 차이를 축소시켜 나가야 하며, 貧困層의 老人女性을 위한 老人女性 福祉事業에 대한 制度的 裝置와 老人女性들 만의 老人亭이나 老人學校 建立이 必要하다 하겠다. 네째, 老人女性問題는 비단 老人女性에게만 限定되는 問題가 아니라 그것은 곧 女性 全體의 問題가 되는 것이므로 女性들이 老後에 까지도 바람직한 生을 營爲할 수 있도록 老人女性問題에 관한 硏究가 더욱 활발해져야 할 것이다. 아울러 老人女性問題 解決을 위한 公的 및 私的인 學會 내지 機關에 대한 制度的인 뒷받침이 있어야 할 것이다.;Unlike a lot of similar studies whose dominant subjects were either old men or old people, my concern will be focused on old women. There are two possible explanations for my approach. First, imbued with traditional Confucianism which stresses the female's unilateral obedience to the male, most of old women today still believe in the innate value of male dominance in Korean society and they are happy to live with that belief. Secondly, given the female life expectancy that is admitted to be longer than that of male, old women are certain to be inflicted with more serious problems. Living in the contemporary Korean society, with the weakened status and role in the family, a vast number of old women are bound to feel a strong sense of alienation and social incompetence. With the above in mind, the purpose of this paper is to examine some salient features of their social problems inherent in the maledominant society and to provide fundamental guideline that will be useful to prevent and work out those problems which are becoming worse. In this paper, based on many of the previous studies documented, I first attempted to determine the definition and several characteristics of old women, to explore some factors that caused the social problems from them, to investigate theories on the role of the sociology to the old, and to search for an theoretical basis to be able to interpret the transitional change in their status and role from the traditional society to modern industrialized one. As a next step, for the purpose of providing my research with empirical data, I make a survey through the questionnaire, to see what effects were brought about on their status and role in the family, personal satisfactions with life, and mentality, according to the different economic levels of the family in which they have involved. The subject involved in this research was a total of two hundred old women in Seoul who are over sixties representing every social class. As far as the method employed goes, I adopted a typical questionnaire and used "Three-Stage Stratified Random Sampling" to cover every social class. With respect to the duration of this research, individual interview was conducted for a period of two weeks from Feb. 1st to Feb. 15th, 1987. And as the result of analyzing the data obtained, a total of 137 old women were available for the purpose who live with their married sons and grand children, and they were compared each other among them according to the economic levels. The findings can be summarized as follows. 1. Old women with high economic level are more likely to enjoy I more active participation in household arrangements, and more attentive parental care. However, old women with meager financial resources. are in great need of making money, and their principal purpose in trying to get a job is to meet their financial needs. Also their leisure activities are concentrated with center in the home affairs. 2. Old women with higher economic level feel a stronger sense of satisfactions with life and therefore they are less likely to feel loneliness. In addition, they are less likely to be the victims of financial deprivation and have little to be dependent on their children. On the other hand, old women in the lower class are preoccupied with their financial needs and health. 3. Old women with higher economic level take the attitude that the financial expenses of later days should be saved in younger days, and that though living expenses is not the problem they should live with their children, while old women in lower class have some negative thoughts to live with their daughter's couple. In conclusion, for the purpose of preventing and tackling the social problems of old women outlined above, I would like to provide the following four suggestions. First of all, old women are expected to make a serious effort to lessen their dependency on their children. What is also required is their willingness to keep their own role impaired and to attain some additional roles supported by a wealth of valuable life experience and practical knowledge. Secondly, admitting that the children ought to play a key role in supporting their parents, they should be aware of the face that either governmental or social assistance is just a supplementary source. Thirdly, on the social level, a revised definition of filial duty should be established in an attempt to reduce the conflicting value orientation between younger generation and older one. It is further hoped that attentive governmental care should be taken to extablish a social welfare system for old women in financial distress and some institutions where they will fully enjoy intensive social interactions. Fourthly, in a broader sense, the social problems of old women can be said to be the problems of every woman. Clearly much more researches need to be carried out so that they are prepared to lead a successful life both in the family and society. Obviously, the first step in helping to solve the social problems of old women dealt with in this paper is to identify their problems themselves. For an awareness of a problem is the beginning of its solution whatever the problem may be. Thus we should make a concerted effort, utilizing every tool at our disposal, to establish relevant academy and hopefully social institutions sponsored by the government.
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