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Gregorian chant의 화음반주에 관한 고찰
- Gregorian chant의 화음반주에 관한 고찰
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- 교육대학원 음악교육전공
- 이화여자대학교 교육대학원
- 음악사상 가장 큰 업적의 하나로 볼 수 있는 중세 사회음악인 Gregorian Chant는 중세예술의 뛰어난 구성이념의 첫 단계를 나타낸다
374년 Milano 대주교 St. Ambrosius는 교회를 개혁하고 동방의 성가를 모집 연구하였고 자신이 제정한 4개의 선법을 사용하여 성가를 작곡하였다.
고대음계를 기초로 한 St. Ambrosius의 성가인 사회선법이 제정된 후 약 200년 후에 유명한 Gregorio I세가 추대되어 교황이 된 후 성가가 매우 중요시 되었다. 그는 고대로부터 전해온 선법을 대치할 만한 필요성을 느꼈기 때문에 4개의 선법을 더 첨가하여 8개의 선법으로 된 교회선법을 창안하였다. 이것이 교회음악의 핵심을 이룬 Gregorian Chant이다.
Gregorian Chant는 Roma Catholic 교회 고유의 성가이며 교육활동이 지향하는 정점이고 모든 힘이 흘러 나오는 원천이며 전례양식에서 첫 자리를 차지한다. 또한 직접적으로 전례에 참여하고 있는 공식의 예술이고 전례양식과 기능과 밀접히 결합되어 있어 전례를 떠나서는 절대 존재할 수가 없다.
Gregorian Chant는 화음도 악기의 반주도 가지지 않는 단음성가인 Cantus Planus이며 모든 주의와 흥미는 언어관계와 Rhythm용법을 기초로 한 Melody의 구성과 표현이 집중된다.
가사는 반드시 Latin어로 사용해야 하며 또한 산문적이고, 특히 Accent가 중요시 되었다. 이러한 Gregorian Chant의 기원은 고대 그리스에서 많은 영향을 받았다.
그리스는 고대의 여러 민족음악의 종합지였으며 그들의 음악은 항상 문학과 밀접하여 서사시를 중심으로 하였고 Lyra와 Aulos의 두 악기를 반주로 한 성악이 그리스 음악을 대표한다고 할 수 있다. 이 그리스 음악은 8개의 선법으로 이루어진 Tetrachordon을 중심으로 한 음계들이 있다. 이러한 선법은 하행선으로 이루어졌다.
Gregorian 선법은 Boetius가 해석의 잘못으로 상행선으로 기록한 것이 Gregorian 선법의 결정적인 것이 되었다.
본 논문에서는 이러한 순수고유의 선법시대로 돌아가 각 선법의 종류와 그 특성을 고찰하고, 반주를 위한 화음연결을 식도해 보고자 한다.
Gregorian Chant의 선법은 정격선법과 변격시법으로 크게 나누고 4개의 종지음을 가진 8개의 선법이다. 종지음과 □음에 따라서 어느 선법에 속하는 것인가를 알 수 있고 이러한 성가는 순수히 선법적이므로 선법의 특성을 근대조성과 도저히 비교할 수가 없다.
18세기 말엽부터 그동안 침체 상태에 있던 성가가 Solemes 수도원에서 Hobert Desrocquettes와 Henri Potiron에 의하여 화음연결을 식도하여 발표되었다.;In the history of music, Gregorian Chant, is regarded as the greatest achievement of Medieval art forms in the field of compositional ideology and theory. St. Ambrose, who was Archbishop af Milano in the year 574 A.D., did much toward reforming Church music. He composed many sacred hymns of oriental origin. created through the use of four musical modes which he himself invented, through much effort and research. These songs and modes were then used in all Church music.
The four modes were originally based on this ancient musical scale, but it was not until two hundred years later, during the reign of the renowned pope Gregory I, that the chant created by St. Ambrose again assumed a position of great importance in Church music, and was called Gregorian Chant. pope Gregory felt the need to charge the forms which were originally composed by St. Ambrose, arid he made additions t o the four modes, resulting in the creation of a liturgical mode consisting of a total of eight modes. This is the Gregorian Chant which has since become the central core of all liturgical mussic.
Gregorian Chant is a distinctively liturgical chant, lending itself to the highest peaks of spiritual expression. It, is the fountainhead from which all spiritual experience flows, and as a result, it occupies a place of first importance in all liturgical ritual.
Also, Gregorian Chant is in essence, a form of formal art;, and this factor makes it very suitable as an liturgical art form, because of its intimate relationship between form and the function of liturgical ritual, which can not exist except in a formal style of music.
Gregorian Chant is a plain-song chant (Cantus planus, L.) recuiring neither harmony nor intrumental accompaniment. The listener finds all his attention and interest being drawn to concentration upon the modely and spiritual expression of the composition, which is based on. linguistic cognitions and the use of rhythmic methods. In composing Gregorian chant, it is of absolute necessity that Iatin be used for the lyrics (word expression), and that the musical form be poetic, taking care to ensure that proper accenting is given at proper intervals; all this is of extreme importance.
Generally speaking, the origin of Gregorian Chant was greatly influenced by Ancient Greece. The contribution that Greece made to ancient music was that of a composite form of music taken from many nations, closely related to literature and centered around epic poetic style, resulting in a musical story form. This was sung to the accompaniment of two intruments called the Lyre ( harp ) and the Aulos ( type of oboe), ani is considered to be a typical form of Greek music. The tonality of the mode was composed from a descending scale, centered around the tetrachord and the eight modes.
Historically, a mistake was made by Boetius, who, in translating the Gregorian modes, inadvertently recorded it as an ascending scale instead of a descending scale, and as a result, this has become the accepted form of the Gregorian mode As the purpose of this thesis, the writer would like to go pack to the original Gregorian mode and deliberate upon the purest an.d original f orm of each of the eight modes composing the Gregorian mode, and also establish a harmonious connection with each of these modes.
Gregorian Chant can be classified into two ma or modes: the Authentic Mode and the Plagal Mode, each having eight modes with four pairs of the same final notes. Chassification of each mode is done in accordance with tonic and dominant notes. In Gregorian Chant, because of its pure mode form, it is absolutely impossible to compare its characteristics with any of the modern tonalities.
Towards the end of the Eighteenth Century, Herbert Desroquottes and Henri Potiron of the Solesmes Monastary in France, recreated a chant which was based upon the original descending scale, and utilized harmony of voices in the singing of the chant in its proper rhythm.
As mentioned previously, the original Gregorian Chant was sung Cantus planus without accompaniment. It was speculated that perhaps some cf the characteristics of this chant would be lost due to the harmonic accompaniment, losing its expression and spiritual quality so characteristic of this beautiful chant. Cantus Planus is an extremely simple melody, using repetition, and the fear in. using harmony was that it would lose this adaptibility and purity of form.
The rhythm of Gregorian Chant allows for harsony of tone throught the use nf the ictus, indicating the grouping of sounds in a given melody, and in different arrangements, allowing for variations in timing and harmony. In short, the Rhythm of Gregorian Chant is based upon the melody, and the use of the iotus makes harmony possible.
All harmony makes use of the harmonic chord, and the so-called non-harmonic tone is of little importance. The reason for this is that the first Inversion in the musical contruction is mandatory whereas the second Inversion is out of the question.
In looking back over the above material concerning the general theory of harmony in Gregorian Chant, an important point to take into account is that of the use of the secondary Seventh Chord. While this Chord can be used, the Dominant Seventh Chord can never be used in any connection with Gregorian Chant.
The use of Gregorian Chant, or Intonation Music, in its rhythmic modes dominanted both classical and Romantic music composition. With the passage of time into the emergence of modern times, musically interested persons tried to depart from the modal tonality, and this was realized through the work of a great musician of the Romantic School called Gabriel-Faure, and his composition entitled A Collection of Songe.
From this we can say that modern music was definitely affected by Gregorian Chant, to such an extent that twentieth Century music uses various forms of tones, each of which is a mode. The effort made to break away from modal tonality, to go various other ways in musical composition, have only increased the use of harmonic modal composition, giving it its own place in modern music.
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