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구한말의 국사교육에 관한 연구

Title
구한말의 국사교육에 관한 연구
Authors
김경숙
Issue Date
1979
Department/Major
교육대학원 교육학전공교육과정분야
Publisher
이화여자대학교 교육대학원
Degree
Master
Abstract
本稿는 甲午改革以後부터 韓日合邦以前까지의 國史敎育에 關하여 硏究한 것이다. 甲午改革 당시 朝鮮의 官僚와 知識入들은 쇠퇴해가던 國權의 恢復과 關聯하여 國史敎育의 重要性을 認識하고 있었다. 그러한 까닭에 甲午改革以後 朝鮮 政府는 國史를 新學制의 敎育課程에 重要한 學科目으로 채택하였다. 이 때부터 官公立學校는 물론 私立學校가 國史敎育을 本格的으로 실시하여 學生들에게 民族精神을 고취시키고자 하였던 것이다. 그러나 乙巳條約約以後 官公立學校의 國史敎育은 日帝의 壓力을 받아 抑制되었으며, 私立學校의 國史敎育은 그 熱이 고조되어 舊韓國民의 愛國心 및 民族思想을 높이고자 하었다. 韓日新協約 以 後 官公立學校의 國史敎育은 日帝의 壓力으로 더욱 쇠퇴하였으나, 한편 당시 民間人들이 國史敎育에 國權恢復이라는 큰 期待를 갖고 있었던 까닭에 乙巳條約으로 高調된 私立學校의 國史敎育熱은 韓日合邦 前後까지 계속되었던 것이다. 甲午改革以後 新學制의 敎育課程에 國史가 單獨 또는 歷史科로서 채택되었다. 그런데 그 課程을 보면 小學校를 除外한 대부분의 것이 指導內容, 目的, 每週敎授時數 등을 規定하지 않은 매우 未備한 것이었다. 게다가 各學校는 漠文을 爲主로 하는 舊敎育의 性裕을 그대로 지니고 있었기 해물에, 당시 政府가 國史敎育을 重視하였음에도 불구하고 國史敎育이 제대로 實施될 수 없었다. 한편 私立學校는 新學制의 規定에 따르지 않고 國史敎育을 실시하였는데, 대개 國史를 單獨料目으로 敎科課程에 채택한 것은 1900年頃이었다. 乙巴榮約以後인 1906 琴에 改諦된 孝制의 滅靑諦程에는 園딘가 歷딘科로서 채택되었다. 그린데 이 歷吏敎爵課程은 識證要旨 孝料課程 每週載畿時款를 定한 近代的인 休制출 갖춘 것이었다. 그러나 그 縮容은 圖炎戮蓄을 拂制한 것이 었는데t 이것은 日帝가 孝年들의 民族漆識을 점차 없애어 m訓頭을 차지하려는 意團에서 비롯된 것이었다. 따라서 이 雇史叢靑課程에 의해 블영되었던 官公立掌校의 르딘 業育이 쇠피랄 수 밖에 없었다. 한편 私立孝確는 이와는 다른 敎育 넥꼰을 운영하였으므로 適與敎靑을 能崇的으로 突液랄 수 있었다. 辯日新協約以後 1908 年과 1909 準에 펄쳐 再改編된 孝制의 敎育說程데는 適吏가 灌吏料 또는 遲펄地理科로 채택희었다. 이 孝科의 敦育課潑은 U시 1906 琴의 것과 치一.한 것이다. 즉 近代的인 체케를 갖춘 것이긴 하나 適吏業習을 努制하는 肉容을 U딘 것이었다. 허에 따라 官公臺峯械는 函史敎壽을 抑制하였쓸 것이며1 私立孝被는 이것에 구속을 받지 않고 驗自的인 淺課程을 운영하여 鬪史鼓音에 注力할 수 있었다. 甲午改業以後부터 乙巳秉約以前까지 濕證펀 圍史談料音는 대부분 諦年停로 鍊述되어 조을 中心으로 한 重要票突을 나열하는데 그친 첫 이어서 당시의 園史談育內容이 前近代的인 것이었음을 보여 주고 있다. 한펀 이 瑞間의 掌部編辯禮펄載科碧륵 大鄧分이 民族의 點立性 을 立證하매 한 것이어서』당시 拳郭가 民族臺停性을 張調하는 縮容의 園史敎靑을 行하고자 했음을 알 수 있다. 딘巳兼締以畿 韓日新協約以前까지 漏努펀 鬪典敎料署는 모두 驗族의 獵立注을 강조하고 있다. 여기서 당시 園史敎曺이 民旅意讀을 고취시키는 內容이었음을 알 수 있으나t 그러한 函典激音은 私立孝校에서 딴 行하였을 것으로 생각된다. 패냐하면 이 則諦에 掌鄧가 適딘敎 料香출 編辯하지 않는 둥 幽典敦帝을 抑制하였으므로, 孝部의 간섭을 받던 官公立拳夜에서 그러한 騷吏敎育이 案施될리 없었기 때문이다.할펀 이 端閣케는 新吏休談述의 鬪典凉斜香인 r:慕園與婚J 이 出刊되어 函딘敎街이 民衆.民談.鬪家를 主停로 하는 歷딘쑨 票案에도 즉 近代的인 恭科縮容에도 諸心을 갖게 되었을 것이다. 導B新繼約以畿 辯B合努以前까지 編努된 鬪典鼓料香는 f 東園典騷J의 談響으로 新典沐銳流方式을 취할 첫이 많읔. 그러나 그 가운데는 讓史의 臺休출 조글 두고 있거나 事業의 나델에 그처는 둥 前近代的 性衛을 기딘 것이 않곤다. 아로,피 합사· 園業救潛情容이 ·'近'代化 하지 못하고 遮代化와 前近1k의 과도기작 상태었음을 알 수 있 그러고 이 刻템에 漏業된 않은 摘史鼓料崙가 卦主擴立硝神을 强調글고 있어( 당시 函農敎育이 自基狼立流神을 고취시키는 肉害인 것은 確突한데 이러한 適吏敎背분 乙濫業約以畿부터 韓日新脚締까자와 마찬가지로 私立拳液에서만 業濾하줬을 것으로 생각된다.;This study covers the curriculum of Korean history from Kap-O Reforma는tion to Korea - Japan Annexation. At the time of Kap-O Reformation when bureaucratism and intellectuals declined, the significance of histiry education was needed for the restoration of national prestige. Thus, Yi-Dynasty posterior to Kap-O Reformation took Korean history as one of subjects in curriculum in the newly rsformed school system. From then on, not merely governmental and public schools but private schools practised, in fu11 scale, educati for history so that the racial spirts could be instilled into the students. But history education in governmental - or publ schools ater Eulsa Treaty was curbed by the suppression of Japan. Despite those bad conditions, history education in private schools reached its peak with earnest enthusiasm for the purpose of enhancing the people's patriotism and racial consciousness. And history eduction in governmental or public schools after Korea - Japan Subsdiary Agrement was more deteriorated by Japanese supression, but that of private schools had been incessantly continued till abou는 Korea - Japan Annexation, because the people expected national prestige to be restored by education for Korean history. As a single subject or a department, history began to be inserted into curriculum in the new school system after Kap-O Reformation. As far as contents are concerned, almost all the history subjec는, excluding that of primary school, was in- suffication in that educational objectives, guidelines and number of lesson hours per week were not specified. In addi一tion, since mos는 schools at that time depended on old-fashioned style of education emphasiong Chinese literture, only the government emphasis on Korean history was faced with difficulties in leading to full scale of education. On the other hand, Private schools not following the new school system practised historical eduction in their way, and at least in about 1900, Korean history was taken as one of subjects in curriculum. Korean history began to be among the curriculum reformed in 1906 atter Eulsa treaty. This history subject came to having modern kind of system, in which educational objectives, guide-linew, and number of lesson hours per week were specified. But education for Korean history was curbed because Japanes imperti-alism wanted to exterminate the racial consciousness of students to take seize up Korea. Accordingly Korean history operated by such historical curriculum could not but help being decayed. On the other hand, Private schools could actively practised the education of Korean history because they practised education in a different way. In a newly reformed curriculum during 1908-1909 after Korea - Japan subsidiary Agreenment, Korean history was taken as a history department or history and geography department. The cirriculun of this department was analogous to that of 1906. It had modern kind of system but consisted of suppressive con-tents against the national history. That is to say, governmental - or pub工ic schools were suppressed in Korean hit온ory education, but private schools rushed to the full scale of education, but private schools rushed to the full scale of education upon their own individual currIculum outside the boundary of Japanese suppression. Korean history textbooks published during the period from Kap-O Reformation through Eulsa Treaty were formed in Chrono-logical order, listed significant events events centering around kings. It can be said that the contents at those time were pre-modern ones. On the other hand, almost all the Korean history textbooks published by Ministry of Education tended to testify racial independence, which indicates that the books tempted to have Korean history education emphasizing racial subjectivity. All the textbooks published during the period from Eulsa Treaty through Korea - Japan Subsidiary Agreement put emphasis on racial independence. This indicates that the education of Korean history instill racial consciousness into students. But it seems that such education were performed only in private schools, Since the Ministry of Eduction put a curb on the publication of Korean history textbooks, governmental or public schools were unable to practise Korean history education. in specal, at this time ""Dong Kuk Sa Ryak"" newly published in a new form became interested in historical facts emphasizing the people, the race, and the nation and in mordern contents of history. The effects of ""Dong Kuk Sa Ryak"" upon the Korean history books published during the period from Eulsa Trety to Subsidiary Agreement led to taking in almost all the cases a new kind of history description. But among them were a number of books putting historical subjectivity on king or were nothing more putting listing historicaI events. This phenomenon impeded de-velopments in the contents of Korean history education. It seems that this period is a transitional stage from Pre-modernization to modernization. Many Korean history textbooks published in this period emphasized autonomous independence spirits to instill those ideas into students, and this kind of historical eduecation had been, assumably, Practised in private schools, as shown in the perid from Eulsa Treaty to Korea -Japan Subsidiary Agreement.
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